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   scale. This makes it more complex to realize first-of-a-kind industrial scale plants, even though       the expected availability of excess renewable power. However, Carbon Capture and Utilization
   their total fuel production costs are comparably attractive. Several projects were approved for         (CCU) is not a widely used technology at large scale yet due to lack of CO2 infrastructure, and
   EU NER300 funding but so far none has come to realisation. The only European gasification-based         the technology at present can only access smaller carbon dioxide sources. Thus, it may have
   biofuel plant in operation, GoBiGas was closed for economic reasons in 2018 and GoGreenGas is           a limited impact by 2030 unless close coupled integration with large sources providing cheap
   apparently struggling in the midst of construction of their small demonstration plant. In North         renewable electricity will be demonstrated.
   America, Enerkem has started producing ethanol from RDF in their plant in Edmonton, Canada,
   and the Fulcrum and Red Rock biofuels Fischer Tropsch hydrocarbon projects in the USA, based                Algae technology is at the early demonstration scale and still in the process of optimising
   on RDF and forest residues, respectively, have both come into construction phase, and there are         energy efficiency as is required for the harvesting, drying and processing of algal products to
   also some additional projects planned. Two new plants to produce methanol from gasification of          fuels. Opportunities in fuel markets are still limited with the exception of biomethane, and the low
   RDF and external hydrogen, both having a capacity of well over 200 000 tonnes/yr. product, are in       energy prices drives the development towards targeting high-value specialities. This development
   planning in the EU, in Rotterdam, NL and Tarragona, ES.                                                 may therefore make an indent in the biofuels market post-2025.

       Regarding pyrolysis, up to 2016, there have been several Ensyn plants in operation in                   “Recycle carbon fuels” from waste industrial streams for the production of liquid or gaseous
   America, while in the EU, both BTG and Valmet/Fortum have constructed and operates industrial           fuels have been acknowledged by the RED II to contribute to the decarbonisation but it will be the
   scale plants in the Netherlands, and Finland, respectively, to produce pyrolis oil for fuel purposes.   member states that decide on if to include this option in their targets. Certain technologies have
   One new Ensyn pyrolysis plant has come into operation in Canada while two others have been              moved forward, a Lanzatech plant steel mill gas ethanol plant is in operation in China and another
   announced, also in North Anerica. Two relatively small trials of co-processing pyrolysis oil (PO) to    one is in construction in Ghent, BE, and in other cases developers are close to reaching the first-
   biofuels in refineries in Brazil and the USA were publicly known in 2017. Additional co-processing      of-a-kind plant status. They may possibly offer significant quantities by 2030.
   trials have since been made or are in planning, both in the USA and in the EU, but still at low blend
   fractions. If successful, a large number of relatively small pyrolysis plants will have to be built to      New technologies such as hydro pyrolysis (IH2) hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) (Licella,
   come to sizable total volume within the decade to come. Upgrading capacity for pyrolysis oil will       Steeper), thermocalatytic conversion (Susteen) and lignin depolymerisation (Renfuel) have
   at first instance largely use existing refinery infrastructure.                                         emerged to a sufficient technical maturity to be considered in the report. These produce different
                                                                                                           grades of liquid intermediates which are to be upgraded to biofuels by mainly co-processing
       Biologically based methane is already commercially available for use as transport fuel              in refineries. In general, these technologies are now being developed in small pilot plants, also
   in captive fleets or injecting in the natural gas grid. The further development with respect to         involving industrial companies such as Shell, Neste, Canfor, Södra and Preem, but have, with
   the scale that bio-based methane is used in transport depends on the competitive demand for             few exceptions, still some ground to cover before these technologies become commercial. One
   biomethane for use in Combined Heat and Power (CHP)plants. Compared to the situation reported           exception is lignin depolymerisation, where Renfuel is planning to construct an industrial scale
   in 2017 there has been an increase in the number of installations and their output both in the EU       demonstration in Sweden in the next few years. Nevertheless, larger scale validation tests of the
   and in USA. Verbio of Germany has bought the previously mentioned Dupont E2G plant in USA to            upgrading of the intermediate have not been publicy reported.
   convert it to biogas from lignocellulosic materials.
                                                                                                               The full report “Technology status and reliability of the value chains: 2018 Update” is
       Power to Gas or Liquids (PtG/L) is being developed at demonstration scale currently given           avaliable via the link:
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