Library

1
Title: A Stochastic Techno-Economic Analysis of the Catalytic Hydrothermolysis Aviation Biofuel Technology
Author: Elspeth McGarvey; Wallace E. Tyner
Publication Year: 2018
OPEN
Source: Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study analyzed the financial feasibility of catalytic hydrothermolysis (CH) aviation biofuel technology. Three feedstocks were assessed: brown grease (rendered from grease trap waste), yellow grease (rendered from used cooking oil), and carinata oil. Since the technology carries risk, a stochastic analysis was conducted, which resulted in a distribution of net present values (NPVs) and breakeven prices. The breakeven price was the price of jet fuel per gallon that made the NPV equal to zero. A scenario where fuel price grew over time and a scenario where fuel price did not grow were both analyzed. Four plant scenarios were analyzed: 1. pioneer brownfield, 2. Nth brownfield, 3. pioneer greenfield, 4. Nth greenfield. Brown grease was the most promising feedstock scenario, in terms of financial feasibility. Breakeven prices in each feedstock scenario were lowest in the brownfield nth plant scenario, and highest in the greenfield pioneer plant scenario. Across the four plant scenarios and two fuel price growth scenarios, mean breakeven prices ranged from $2.02 to $2.83/gal in the brown grease scenario, $2.82 to $3.81/gal in the yellow grease scenario, and $3.90 to $5.66/gal in the carinata oil scenario. With the addition of RINs and LCFS credits, the probability of loss was as low as 0.0%, 18.9%, and 74.6% in the brown grease, yellow grease, and carinata oil scenarios, respectively. However, without RIN or LCFS credits, the process was not found to be financially viable.

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2
Title: Regulation of the EP and of the Council on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information at national and Union level relevant to climate change and repealing Decision No 280/2004/EC
Author: Official Journal of the European Union
Publication Year: 2013
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a Regulation on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information at national and Union level relevant to climate change and repealing Decision No 280/2004/EC.

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3
Title: State of the Art on Alternative Fuels Transport Systems in the European Union
Author: COWI
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: FUTURE CONCEPTS
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The present report, based on the contributions of the EG FTF, has the main objective to provide an update of the latest developments in the field of alternative fuels and the market uptake of alternative fuel transport systems and related infrastructure in the EU. This information, among the other guidance documents elaborated by the Commission, will be of good assistance to MS to prepare their National Policy Frameworks. The report also contains some recommendations to MS to facilitate the achievement of the objectives of the Directive as well as to the Commission to pursue a further market uptake of alternative fuel transport systems in the EU.The aim of the study is to gather information of the development of alternative fuels for transport in the EU and to give a broad overview.
The report encompasses the facts, the figures and the positions of the Expert Group on Future Transport Fuels (EGFTF) on the measures (policy and research) to be taken to ensure the proper development of alternative fuels in the EU. It has been drafted by COWI mainly on the basis of the results of the meetings of the Expert Group of future transport fuels as well as on further information provided by the members of the Group.

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4
Title: DIRECTIVE 2014/94/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
Author:
Publication Year: 2014
OPEN
Source: Official Journal of the European Union Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GASIFICATION Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is the Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure. This Directive establishes a common framework of measures for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in the Union in order to minimise dependence on oil and to mitigate the environmental impact of transport. This Directive sets out minimum requirements for the building-up of alternative fuels infrastructure, including recharging points for electric vehicles and refuelling points for natural gas (LNG and CNG) and hydrogen, to be implemented by means of Member States’ national policy frameworks, as well as common technical specifications for such recharging and refuelling points, and user information requirements.

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5
Title: Report on Barriers to Biofuels Deployment in Europe
Author: European Biofuels Technology Platform (EBTP) – Support for Advanced Biofuels Stakeholders (SABS)
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The aim of this Report is to feed the debate on how to most effectively overcome such hurdles with the support of the EBTP. Even though the EU2020 targets are far from being met, the development of advanced biofuels capacities is slowing down. In January 2014 the European Commission presented the 2030 framework for climate and energy policies. One main change compared to the 2020 targets is that the Commission does not anymore include targets for renewable energy or the greenhouse gas intensity of fuels used in the transport sector or any other sub-sector after 2020. Previously, the Commission has already indicated, that food-based biofuels should not receive public support after 2020. The focus of policy development should be on second and third generation biofuels and other alternative, sustainable fuels, which is reflected in the 2030 decision. This report aims at spotlighting country-specific bottlenecks hindering more active engagement of the industry to realize the potentials of advanced biofuels.

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6
Title: EU Refining launches its low-carbon liquid fuels path to meet CO2 targets for transport
Author: Alain Mathuren
Publication Year: 2018
OPEN
Source: FuelsEurope Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is about the proposed long-term trajectory for low-carbon liquid fuels for Europe (refining industry’s Vision 2050) by FuelsEurope. Transitioning gradually to new feedstocks such as renewables, waste and captured CO2, and with the right policy framework in place, this vision offers a cost-effective option for cutting CO2 emissions in transport using the existing and widespread infrastructure already in place, enabling to reducing emissions of all vehicles in circulation and including all transport sectors, HDV, marine and aviation.

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7
Title: Biofuels for Aviation: Review and analysis of options for market development
Author: Paul Deane (University College Cork); Steve Pye (University College London)
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: INSIGHT_E Proposed by: Kyriakos Maniatis
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The objective of this report is to review and analyse options for biojet market development in Europe to meet the Biofuel FlightPath target. An assessment of these options cannot be divorced from existing EU bioenergy policy; therefore, a review of current use and bioenergy policy in the EU is presented. Areas of complementarity and conflict are highlighted and in particular, policy recommendations are made to ensure cohesiveness in the overall renewable energy policy landscape. A review of existing methods and pathways to create biojet fuel is presented as this provides an important base not only for an understanding of the type and quantity of feedstocks required but also for implications for sustainability and potential emissions reduction. The report then reviews existing and proposed mechanisms that may be exploited to bring higher levels of biojet fuels to market.

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8
Title: CO2 from new cars up as petrol overtakes diesel, 2017 data shows
Author: Cara McLaughlin
Publication Year: 2018
OPEN
Source: ACEA Proposed by: David Chiaramonti
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a joint report by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA) illustrating that CO2 emissions increase as a function of the petrol sales.

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9
Title: Economic_and_Market_Report_Q4_2017
Author:
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: ACEA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: PASSENGER CARS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is an Economic and Market Report of the EU Automotive Industry in the last quarter of 2017.

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10
Title: No improvements on average CO2 emissions from new cars in 2017
Author:
Publication Year: 2018
OPEN
Source: EEA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a brief overview of key findings after analysis of available data on new passenger vehicles registered in Europe that was performed by European Environment Agency (EEA).

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11
Title: BIOFUELS MATRIX
Author:
Publication Year: 2018
OPEN
Source: UPEI Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The file is a Biofuels matrix put together by UPEI in March 2018 that gives a concise overview on the (i) taxation system, (ii) mandatory blending and (iii) legislation for advanced biofuels in several countries (Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, UK).

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12
Title: Well to wheel efficiency for heavy duty vehicles
Author: Ahlvik P.
Publication Year: 2009
OPEN
Source: Ecotraffic ERD3 AB, 2009. Floragatan 10B, SE-114 31 Stockholm, Sweden. Proposed by: VOLVO
Forum Area 1: HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The project reported here was made in co-operation between Ecotraffic and Volvo Technology. The scenarios, fuel and driveline studied were largely established in discussions between these two parties. The project was funded by the Swedish emission research programme (EMFO) administered by the Swedish Road Administration. The main scope of the project was to gain more knowledge about well-to-wheel efficiency of the use of biofuels in heavy-duty vehicles. The most general conclusion that can be drawn about the energy converter is that if the most efficient engine type is used, i.e. the diesel engine, the differences between the tankto-wheel (TTW) efficiency for most fuels becomes quite small. In order to apply such technology, a considerable development work would be necessary. It is plausible, that for some of the fuel options, as high efficiency as for he diesel-fuelled diesel engine might not be achieved due to some intrinsic fuel properties or practical reasons. On the other hand, it is also possible that some of the fuels could have properties that might be utilised for improving the efficiency to an even higher level than the diesel baseline. Examples here could be the ―internal cooling‖ possible with direct injection of alcohol fuels and the specific combustion properties of DME. Likewise, the utilisation of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) might also be optimised for these fuel options and possibly, also for other fuels.

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13
Title: COUNCIL DIRECTIVE (EU) 2015/652 Petrol&Diesel fuels
Author: Official Journal of the European Union
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This Directive lays down rules on calculation methods and reporting requirements in accordance with Directive 98/70/EC. This Directive applies to fuels used to propel road vehicles, non-road mobile machinery (including inland waterway vessels when not at sea), agricultural and forestry tractors, recreational craft when not at sea and electricity for use in road vehicles.

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14
Title: Data sources to support land suitability assessments for bioenergy feedstocks in the EU – A review
Author: Allen B., Maréchal A., Nanni S., Pražan J., Baldock D., Hart K.
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), London. Proposed by: European Climate Foundation
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2: SUSTAINABILITY
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study concerns itself primarily with the first (more common) approach, and has looked at whether the available data can be used to support the identification of currently unused land that could be considered sustainably available for biofuel production. This will help to understand the myriad claims made about land area potentials in relation to biofuels and bioenergy production in the EU. The study does not consider ways in which biomass production could be integrated to the existing agricultural production system. Whilst there may be merit in exploring such options, studies assessing potential for this type of bioenergy project are far less common, and would require a different approach to their review and understanding.
This study should not be considered as a comprehensive review of all available land use and cover datasets that relate to rural land in the EU. The review takes place within the specific context described above and therefore focuses on those data that can help us to understand land use patterns and availability in the EU.

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15
Title: Methanol as a Marine Fuel
Author: Andersson K., Salazar C.M.
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: FC Business Intelligence Ltd, 2015 Proposed by: Methanol Institute
Forum Area 1: MARITIME Forum Area 2: ALCOHOLS
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Methanol is readily available worldwide and every year over 70 million tons are produced globally. The main feed-stock in methanol production is natural gas. However, methanol could be 100% renewable, as it can be produced from a variety of renewable feed-stocks or as an electro-fuel. Methanol is very similar to marine fuels such as heavy fuel oil (HFO) because it is also a liquid. This means that existing storage, distribution and bunkering infrastructure could handle methanol.

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16
Title: Advanced Biofuel Feedstocks – An Assessment of Sustainability
Author: Arup URS Consortium
Publication Year: 2014
OPEN
Source: Arup URS Consortium Package Order Ref: 217(4/45/12)ARPS – PPRO 04/91/30 Proposed by: St1 Biofuels
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2: SUSTAINABILITY
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study provides, to the best of author’s knowledge, a first holistic analysis of the whole list of sustainability criteria. It gathers consistent information and defines a rationale for including feedstocks within Annex IX using a clear set of criteria.

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17
Title: Advanced Biofuel Demonstration Competition Feasibility Study
Author: Arup URS Consortium, E4tech (UK) Ltd and Ricardo-AEA
Publication Year: 2014
OPEN
Source: Arup URS Consortium, E4tech (UK) Ltd and Ricardo-AEA: Package Order Ref: PPRO 04/91/32 Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: COMPETITION RULES, WTO Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

A UK Competition on advanced biofuels would place the UK on the global map of nations supporting their commercialisation. Current status of development of the sector means that there is potential for additionality from UK public funding to the sector, which could support the development of UK industry related to the sector and the deployment of technology in the UK, and attract international players to the UK. This feasibility study concludes that there is opportunity for a UK Competition to support one or more advanced biofuel demonstration project, within the proposed £25M budget. However, the funding available may not be able to support some of the more cost intensive technologies and may be restricted in terms of the large scale demonstration activities it could fund (TRL 7). As a result, the Competition should invite applications for activities at both TRL 6 and 7, and this may be most effectively done through a two stage application process. All scales of demonstration may deliver against the Competition objectives, where proposals demonstrate exploitation of intellectual property for UK benefit and potential for future commercial deployment of the technology in the UK and elsewhere, but their contribution towards the 2020 RED targets would be limited. The Competition would be an important means to promote the UK’s participation in the global advanced biofuels market, which could contribute up to £260M – £520M per year to the UK economy in 2030, and initiate the deployment of the technology in the UK.

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18
Title: The future of climate-friendly aviation: Ten percent alternative aviation fuels by 2025
Author: Aviation Initiative for Renewable Energy in Germany e.V.
Publication Year: 2012
OPEN
Source: Aviation Initiative for Renewable Energy in Germany e.V., Georgen str. 25, 10117, Berlin, Germany Proposed by: Lufthansa
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: SUSTAINABILITY
Forum Area 3: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 4:

Aireg has put together this strategy paper to demonstrate that it is already possible to sustainably develop feedstock on a large scale today, that there are sophosticated processing technologies available that are ready for use on ana industrial scale right now, and that the use of biofuel in the aviation industry is of great interest to all parties involved provided – the right economic and political conditions are set in place and observed.

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19
Title: Low carbon energy and feedstock for the European chemical industry
Author: Bazzanella M.A., Ausfelder F.
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e.V. Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, 60486 Frankfurt am Main Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The scope of this study is to analyse how the chemical industry could use breakthrough technologies to further reduce CO2 emissions resulting from the production of its key building blocks. The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on promising low carbon technologies, estimate their potential impact on CO2 emission reductions, and highlight the current technological and financial limitations and barriers. Promising technologies are available at a relatively advanced stage of development, however their implementation on a wide scale is hard to achieve under the current framework conditions, while we also need to safeguard the benefits and the global competitiveness of this key industrial sector in Europe. This shows the need for a concerted approach between public and private stakeholders to further support an ambitious research and innovation agenda, with a strong focus on industrial relevance. It also shows the need, more than ever, for a close dialogue between public and private stakeholders about the regulatory framework that will allow the shift in the long run.

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20
Title: Low Carbon Transport Fuel Policy for Europe Post 2020. How can a post 2020 low carbon transport fuel policy be designed that is effective and addresses the political pitfalls of the pre 2020 policies?
Author: Bowyer C., Skinner I., Malins C., Nanni S., Baldock D.
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), The International Council of Clean Transportation (ICCT), Transport and Environmental Policy Research (TEPR) Proposed by: Transport & Environment
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This paper is intended to contribute to debate on future EU action on low carbon transport fuels. It aims to provide an analysis of a range of policy tools and mechanisms that could be employed to deliver action in this field, their strengths and limitations and to explore the need for action and the EU’s role within this. The following analysis is intended to: Explore the motivation for low carbon transport policy at the EU level and examine the case for continued action; Examine and establish the policy goals future action post 2020 would need to deliver against;
Improve understanding of both current EU level and alternative approaches to delivering low carbon transport fuels and key lessons from these experiences; Explore core policy tools, based on the literature, interviews with experts and experience for delivering effective action on low carbon transport fuels; Set out and review the core policy options for future action at EU level in the post 2020 period. The analysis within this report is based on literature review, interviews with key experts, a workshop with experts (January 2015) and a systematic review of policy objectives, goals, behaviour change and actors. The methodology adopted to analyse, develop and review future policy is set out below. Within this report it was felt critical to fully disaggregate and clearly set out the policy needs before developing future policy solutions. In this way preconceptions around policy tools and policy outcomes are revealed and set aside to enable an effective assessment of the best policy solutions for the future.

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21
Title: Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Options for sustainable and/or energy-secure transportation
Author: Bromberg L., Cheng W.K.
Publication Year: 2010
OPEN
Source: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Final report UT-Battelle Subcontract Number:4000096701 Proposed by: Methanol Institute
Forum Area 1: ALCOHOLS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Methanol has been promoted as an alternative transportation fuel from time to time over the past forty years. In spite of significant efforts to realize the vision of methanol as a practical transportation fuel in the US, such as the California methanol fueling corridor of the 1990s, it did not succeed on a large scale. This white paper covers all important aspects of methanol as a transportation fuel.

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22
Title: Cost impacts of ICAO’s GMBM
Author: Cames M., Velzen van An.
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Briefing Paper. Oeko-Institut e.V. Office Berlin, Schicklerstr. 5-7, 10179 Berlin Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Aim of the Paper: To estimate the cost impacts of introducing a global market-based mechanism (GMBM) in the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) per developing country region, particularly Africa, Asia and Latin America / Caribbean. Approach: Scenario analysis 1. Cost impacts are estimated using the AERO modelling system (AERO-MS); 2. Offset supply is estimated using the CDM pipeline of registered offset projects.

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23
Title: Availability of offsets for a global market-based mechanism for international aviation
Author: Cames M.
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: Briefing Paper. Oeko-Institut e.V. Office Berlin, Schicklerstr. 5-7, 10179 Berlin Proposed by: Swedish Biofuel
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The results of this analysis support that credits from the pipeline of existing Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) projects could cover this demand for a period of at least eight years even if eligibility requirements for certain project types and vintages are introduced. If, in addition, the four years from ICAO’s potential decision to establish the Global Market-Based Mechanism (GMBM) in late 2016 to its entrance into force in early 2021 are taken into account, the period amounts to 12 years, which is certainly long enough to provide CDM project developers sufficient lead time to develop and register new CDM projects. Based on this evidence, concerns that there is a scarcity of offset supply for ICAO’s GMBM would seem to be groundless even if ICAO were to deem only credits with high environmental quality standards eligible and to use only recent vintages.

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24
Title: DIRECTIVE 2009/30/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
Author: Official Journal of the European Union
Publication Year: 2009
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Amendment to Directive 98/70/EC. Articles 1, 4, 9, 11 are replaced. Articles 2, 3, are amended. Articles 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e, 8a are inserted. Article 14 is deleted. Annexes I, II, III and IV are replaced by the text appearing in the Annex to the current Directive.

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25
Title: Emission Reduction Targets for International Aviation and Shipping
Author: Cames M., Graichen J., Siemons Anne, Cook V.
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: Briefing Paper. Oeko-Institut e.V. Office Berlin, Schicklerstr. 5-7, 10179 Berlin Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: MARITIME
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The aim of this study is to provide Members of the European Parliament with the necessary expertise to assess what adequate contributions of the two sectors would be in terms of emission reduction. It starts with a summary of the historic CO2 emission trends in both sectors (Chapter 2). Despite the fact that both international aviation and maritime transport contribute to climate change beyond their GHG emissions (Box 1), it focuses our quantitative analysis on CO2 only, due to limited availability of consistent data for non-CO2 impacts. However, since these impacts cannot simply be ignored, it points out the implications for our conclusions if non-CO2 impacts are taken into account as well. In Chapter 3 provides a short overview of efforts undertaken at ICAO and IMO to address GHG emission of international aviation and maritime transport. In order to determine the future role of both sectors in terms of global GHG emissions, it examines emission projections for international aviation and maritime transport (Chapter 4) and provide estimates of their shares to global GHG emission pathways (Chapter 5). Based on these considerations it discusses concepts and approaches to determine adequacy in terms of emissions (Chapter 6) and derive potential emission stabilisation and reduction targets from these deliberations (Chapter 7). Conclusions of this study are provided in Chapter 8.

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26
Title: An Aviation Carbon Offset Scheme (ACOS), Version 3.0 – Update
Author: Cames M., Gores S., Graichen V., Keimeyer F., Jasper F.
Publication Year: 2014
OPEN
Source: On behalf of the Federal Environment Agency (Germany). Environmental Research of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, Project No. (FKZ) 3713 14 102. Publisher: Umweltbundesamt, Wörlitzer Platz 1, 06844 Dessau-Roßlau. Germany Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: REGULATION
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This paper provides a concept for the design of the Aviation Carbon Offset Scheme (ACOS) and aims at overcoming the deadlock that has continued for many years between developed and developing countries, hindering an agreement on instruments addressing greenhouse gas emission of the aviation sectors. We discuss key design options of such a scheme, including which entity should be responsible for purchasing offsets, how requirements for purchasing offsets can be divided between the covered entities, how the diverging situations of countries can be taken into account without providing incentives to evade the scheme and what needs to be considered to ensure environmental integrity. As a result we sketch out a scheme covering all countries, which takes into account differences them by means of a route-based differentiation of requirements, which does not generate any revenues and which would enable the aviation sector to contribute appropriately to the global challenge of addressing climate change.

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27
Title: CO2-Based Synthetic Fuel: Assessment of Potential European Capacity and Environmental Performance
Author: Christensen A., Petrenko Ch.
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Climate Foundation and the International Council on Clean Transportation Proposed by: The International Council on Clean Transportation
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: REGULATION
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study aims to improve our understanding of the potential contribution that CO2-based synthetic fuels could make towards the European Union’s (EU) climate mitigation goals. It projects potential volumes of these fuels that could be produced in EU Member States based on a financial analysis and deployment model, taking into account technology readiness, potential subsidies or other policy support, and expected changes in renewable electricity prices. The study then assesses expected impacts of CO2-based synthetic fuel production on electricity generation and consumption in the EU. It estimates the GHG intensity of CO2-based synthetic fuels, including both direct emissions from synthesizing the fuels and indirect emissions resulting from increased demand for electricity from the grid. Lastly, we estimate the total GHG reductions that could potentially be achieved by CO2-based synthetic fuels across the EU, compared to climate goals.

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28
Title: Commercial Aircraft Propulsion and Energy Systems Research: Reducing Global Carbon Emissions
Author: Committee on Propulsion and Energy Systems to Reduce Commercial Aviation Carbon Emissions
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Committee on Propulsion and Energy Systems to Reduce Commercial Aviation Carbon Emissions; Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. National Academies Press, Keck 360, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 ISBN 978-0-309-44096-7. DOI: 10.17226/23490 Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: FUNDAMENTALS, DEFINITIONS Forum Area 4:

Four high-priority approaches were identified throughout the course of study that have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from commercial aviation, particularly from those aircraft that produce the bulk of the emissions: large single- and twin-aisle aircraft. However, developing new technology for large commercial aircraft requires substantial time and resources. Aircraft–propulsion integration and gas turbine engines are both well-established approaches that need to be pursued. In contrast, the funding situation for the other two approaches, turboelectric propulsion and SAJF, is somewhat problematic. It is not clear when turboelectric propulsion technology will advance to the point that it provides the performance needed for practical application in commercial aircraft. It is also uncertain when SAJF will be able to compete economically with petroleum-based fuels, especially considering the capital costs of founding a new industry and the fluctuating prices of conventional jet fuel. Given the immediacy of the issues, however, research supporting all four approaches is prudent both to reduce current CO2 emissions and to alleviate the potential adverse consequences of future aviation growth worldwide.

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29
Title: Novel Low Carbon Transport Fuels and the RTFO: sustainability implications Scoping paper for the UK Department for Transport
Author: Denvir B., Taylor R., Bauen A., Toop G., Alberici S.
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: UK Department for Transport Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This scoping paper by E4tech and Ecofys presents a classification framework for various types of transport fuels, and the potential risks and practical implications of widening the scope of the RTFO to encompass novel low carbon fuels other than biofuels. The main objectives of the paper are:
1.To classify the various types of fuels in order to understand their standing in the context of the RED, FQD and current RTFO, and establish the makings of a comprehensive, consistent classification framework for transport fuels
2.To identify sustainability risks or unintended consequences that supporting novel low carbon transport fuels could lead to and consider how these can be mitigated
3.To consider some of the practical implications of expanding the RTFO to encompass these new fuels

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30
Title: Around the world in eighty days of climate actions in transport
Author: Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment Proposed by: Lanzatech
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The Dutch View for Transportation and Climate Change

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31
Title: The Impact of Biofuels on Transport and the Environment, and Their Connection with Agricultural Development in Europe
Author: Directorate-General for Internal Policies, Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: Directorate-General for Internal Policies, Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies ISBN: 978-92-823-6329-4 (pdf). doi: 10.2861/775 (pdf) Proposed by: Lufthansa
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study provides a detailed overview of biofuels production and consumption and of related policies worldwide. It also contains comprehensive analysis and discussion of key aspects affecting the overall sustainability of biofuels. These include, in particular, their impact on agricultural markets, emissions from indirect land-use change, and greenhouse gas emissions.

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32
Title: E2 ADVANCED BIOFUEL MARKET REPORT 2014
Author: E2 Environmental Entrepreneurs
Publication Year: 2014
OPEN
Source: E2 Environmental Entrepreneurs Proposed by: International Council of Clean Transportation
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This analysis reveals a decrease in capacity over previous years and downward trends in financial metrics. Biodiesel remains the dominant biofuel through 2017, but we project increasing contributions from other fuels, in particular drop-in hydrocarbons and cellulosic ethanol. As the industry matures, some companies have ceased operations or shifted their focus to other markets. Many companies, however, continue to move steadily towards commercialization, with a number of firms expecting to begin production at commercial scale by the end of this year. Policies like the federal Renewable Fuel Standard and California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard continue to be the primary drivers for market development, although there remain industry challenges related to regulatory uncertainty. Most notably, the EPA was delayed this year in its annual announcement for the Renewable Fuel Standard volumes. This regulatory instability leads to decreased investment, which further exacerbates other challenges associated with commercialization. In addition, in 2014 the LCFS was frozen at 2013 compliance volumes during a re-adoption period following a court decision. A number of promising plants have been delayed or idled because of difficulties in production or financing within this new industry. A trend in 2014 has been innovation in some companies’ paths to commercialization. While many companies continue to commercialize with a large biorefinery, other companies are looking at more distributed generation models that are less capital and feedstock intensive. We also look at trends in feedstock price and utilization to paint a clearer picture of this important component of the industry. This report continues to see valuable potential for advanced biofuels to have a substantial impact on the transportation sector in the United States. Despite some setbacks, there are many companies moving steadily towards commercialization.

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33
Title: EU REFERENCE SCENARIO 2016, ENERGY, TRANSPORT AND GHG EMISSIONS, TRENDS TO 2050
Author: E3M-Lab, PRIMES model, GEM-E3 model, Prometheus model and PRIMES gas, IIASA -GAINS model, IIASA –GLOBIOM/G4M models, EuroCARE
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Directorate-General for Energy, the Directorate-General for Climate Action and the Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport. PDF ISBN: 978-92-79-52374-8. doi: 10.2833/001137 Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: REGULATION Forum Area 2: FUNDAMENTALS, DEFINITIONS
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The Reference Scenario analyses key policies aiming at reducing GHG emissions (e.g. EU ETS, CO2 standards for light duty vehicles), at increasing the RES share (e.g. RES targets and implementing policies), and at improving energy efficiency (e.g. Energy Efficiency Directive, Ecodesign). The increase in RES and improvements in energy efficiency also lead to the reduction of GHG emissions. The modelling captures these policy interactions. Furthermore, the scenario analysis also provides indicators related to competitive energy provision for businesses and affordability of energy use, as these are key aspects for economic and social development. In the Reference Scenario, GHG emissions decrease in most sectors of the energy system. This is particularly the case in the power generation sector as various decarbonisation technologies reach maturity, despite the increase in gross electricity demand. As a result, the EU energy system sees a strong reduction in the carbon intensity of power generation. Non-CO2 emissions trends are diverse, with substantial decreases in e.g. waste and HFCs and small decreases in agriculture. LULUCF is currently an emission sink, although this is projected to decline. The Reference Scenario projects an increase in renewable energy shares over the projected period. This is first driven by dedicated RES policies and later in the period by the long-lasting effect of current policies, technological progress and better market functioning. Additionally the energy system is characterised by a continued decoupling of GDP growth and energy demand growth: while the economy grows by 75% between 2010 and 2050, total energy consumption reduces by 15% in the same time period. Focusing on the short to medium term, the Reference Scenario shows that the period between 2010 and 2020 sees substantial changes in the energy system. This is notably driven by the legally binding targets of the 2020 Energy and Climate package, the CO2 standards for cars and vans, and the Energy Efficiency Directive. The projection shows that the combined measures achieve 18.4% energy efficiency gains. The EU 2020 RES share is 21.0%, while GHG emission reductions would reach 25.7%. Adopted policies are found to be sufficient to achieve the EU level 2020 target for effort sharing sectors. Regarding the medium to long term, GHG emission reductions are projected to reach 35.2% in 2030 and 47.7% in 2050. Although emissions reduce substantially, the decrease is less than the target agreed for 2030 and the objective for 2050. The RES share reaches 24.3% in 2030. The ETS, which leads to continued reductions of allowances over the projection period and increasing carbon prices, is a significant driver to RES penetration and further emission reduction. The influence of energy efficiency policies, the CO2 standards for cars and vans, etc. continues beyond the 2020 horizon, with energy savings of 23.9% projected for 2030. The changes that the power generation sector undergoes entail considerable capital intensive investments. These include investments into the transmission and distribution systems not least because of the development of the ENTSOE Ten Year Development Plan until 2030. Investment costs have an upward effect on electricity prices – and on energy system costs – in the transitional period until 2030. Beyond 2030, however, electricity prices stabilize and even decrease. A general effect on total energy system costs is that they become more capital intensive
over time. After the structural adjustments in order to cope with the 2020 targets and policies, of which the effects continue in the longer term, total energy system costs grow slower than GDP. This leads to a decreasing ratio of energy system costs to GDP in the period 2030-50.

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34
Title: A harmonised Auto-Fuel biofuel roadmap for the EU to 2030
Author: E4tech
Publication Year: 2013
OPEN
Source: E4tech 83, Victoria Street, London SW1H 0HW, United Kingdom Proposed by: SGAB Core Team, St1 Biofuels
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: AVIATION
Forum Area 3: MARITIME Forum Area 4: RAIL

The focus of the study is to develop a liquid biofuel roadmap that can make a significant contribution to environmental and energy goals. While the roadmap focuses on liquid biofuels for road transport, the modelling underpinning this roadmap also considers the role of other alternative fuels, such as natural gas, hydrogen and electricity, and the use of biofuels in other non-road transport modes, such as aviation, rail, shipping and off-highway vehicles. Also, the modelling incorporates a wide range of factors that determine the uptake of biofuels.

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35
Title: DIRECTIVE (EU) 2015/1513 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
Author: Official Journal of the European Union
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Amendment to Directive 98/70/EC: Points 10,11,12,13,14 are added in Article 2. Articles 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 10 are amended. Paragraph 3 of Article 8a, Article 11 is replaced. Point (k) is added in Article 9. Article 10a is inserted. Annex IV is amended and Annex V is added in accordance with Annex I to this Directive.
Amendment to Directive 2009/28/EC: Points (p), (q), (r), (s), (t), (u), (v), (w) are added in Article 2. Articles 3, 17, 18, 19, 23 is amended. Paragraph 5 in Article 5 is replaced, Paragraphs 1 and 2 in Article 6 is replaced. Article 21 is deleted. Second paragraph in Article 22 is amended. Article 25 is replaced. Article 25a is inserted. Annex V is amended and Annexes VIII and IX are added in accordance with Annex II to this Directive.

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36
Title: A harmonised Auto-Fuel biofuel roadmap for the EU to 2030 – Appendices
Author: E4tech
Publication Year: 2013
OPEN
Source: E4tech 83, Victoria Street, London SW1H 0HW, United Kingdom Proposed by: SGAB Core Team, St1 Biofuels
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: AVIATION
Forum Area 3: MARITIME Forum Area 4: RAIL

The focus of the study is to develop a liquid biofuel roadmap that can make a significant contribution to environmental and energy goals. While the roadmap focuses on liquid biofuels for road transport, the modelling underpinning this roadmap also considers the role of other alternative fuels, such as natural gas, hydrogen and electricity, and the use of biofuels in other non-road transport modes, such as aviation, rail, shipping and off-highway vehicles. Also, the modelling incorporates a wide range of factors that determine the uptake of biofuels.

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37
Title: From the Sugar Platform to biofuels and biochemical
Author: E4TECH, RE-CORD and WUR
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: Final report for the European Commission Directorate-General Energy Contract No. ENER/C2/423-2012/SI2.673791 Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: SUGAR Forum Area 2: USA
Forum Area 3: CHINA Forum Area 4: BRASIL

Numerous potential pathways to biofuels and biochemicals exist via the sugar platform. This study uses literature surveys, market data and stakeholder input to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policymakers and industry – identifying the key benefits and development needs for the sugar platform. The study created a company database for 94 sugar-based products, with some already commercial, the majority at research/pilot stage, and only a few demonstration plants crossing the “valley of death”. Case studies describe the value proposition, market outlook and EU activity for ten value chains (acrylic, adipic & succinic acids, FDCA, BDO, farnesene, isobutene, PLA, PHAs and PE). Most can deliver significant greenhouse savings and drop-in (or improved) properties, but at an added cost to fossil alternatives.
Whilst significant progress has been made, research barriers remain around lignocellulosic biomass fractionation, product separation energy, biological inhibition, chemical selectivity and monomer purity, plus improving whole chain process integration. An assessment of EU competitiveness highlights strengths in R&D, but a lack of strong commercial activity, due to the US, China and Brazil having more attractive feedstock and investment conditions. Further policy development, in particular for biochemicals, will be required to realise a competitive European sugar-based bioeconomy.

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38
Title: European Aviation Environmental Report 2016
Author: European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), European Environment Agency (EEA) and EUROCONTROL
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), European Environment Agency (EEA) and EUROCONTROL, ISBN: 978-92-9210-197-8. doi: 10.2822/385503 Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: REGULATION
Forum Area 3: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 4: SUSTAINABILITY

Sustainable Alternative Fuels: • Uptake of sustainable alternative fuels in the aviation sector is very slow, but assumed to play a  large role in reducing aviation greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades.
• The European Advanced Biofuels Flightpath provides a  roadmap to achieve an annual production rate of 2 million tonnes of sustainably produced biofuel for civil aviation by 2020.
• European commercial flights have trialled sustainable alternative fuels. However regular production of sustainable aviation alternative fuels is projected to be very limited in the next few years, and thus it is unlikely that the roadmap 2020 target will be achieved. Market‑Based Measures: • Market-based measures are needed to meet aviation’s emissions reduction targets as technological and operational improvements alone are not considered sufficient. • The European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) currently covers all intra-European flights. This will contribute around 65 million tonnes of CO2 emission reductions between 2013 and 2016, achieved within the aviation sector and in other sectors. • More than 100 airports in Europe have deployed noise and emissions charging schemes since the 1990s.

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39
Title: Impact Assessment Accompanying the document Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 up to 2030
Author: European Commission, Commission Staff Working Document
Publication Year: 2014
OPEN
Source: European Commission, Commission Staff Working Document SWD (2014) 15 final. Brussels, 22-01-2014 Proposed by: BTG, Mossi & Ghisolfi
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The policy initiative underpinned by this Impact Assessment is only the first step to a comprehensive and detailed solution to energy and climate challenges in a 2030 perspective. As such, the policy initiative focuses on the broad objectives of the 2030 Framework and some key implementation aspects; in particular the issue of climate and energy targets in a 2030 perspective and how they interact. It is also expected to propose the general direction of policy development in specific areas; such as internal energy market, supply diversification, the ETS cap, including approach to issues such as the existing large surplus or carbon leakage, and the role of agriculture and transport in the transition towards a more competitive, secure and sustainable energy system and EU economy. On this basis, the policy options evaluated in this Impact Assessment focus on the target setting as such, and to a lesser extent on other means of ensuring progress towards meeting the abovementioned challenges. This Impact Assessment includes a first assessment of the implementation approach to meet the 2030 objectives for climate and energy policies, but it should be underlined that the specific implementation measures will require further assessments. This would be done in a second step once there is agreement on the general approach to the 2030 framework, through dedicated impact assessments. One concrete policy implementation that is envisaged already now is the proposal for a structural measure to improve the functioning of the ETS which is confronted with a large surplus. This proposal is however supported by a separate Impact Assessment.

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40
Title: State of the Art on Alternative Fuels Transport Systems in the European Union
Author: European Commission, DG MOVE - Expert group on future transport fuels State of the Art on Alternative Fuels Transport Systems
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: European Commission, DG MOVE - Expert group on future transport fuels State of the Art on Alternative Fuels Transport Systems Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: REGULATION
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The aim of the study is to gather information of the development of alternative fuels for transport in the EU and to give a broad overview. The report encompasses the facts, the figures and the positions of the Expert Group on Future Transport Fuels (EGFTF) on the measures (policy and research) to be taken to ensure the proper development of alternative fuels in the EU. It has been drafted by COWI mainly on the basis of the results of the meetings of the Expert Group of future transport fuels as well as on further information provided by the members of the Group.

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41
Title: Communication on decarbonising the transport sector
Author: European Commission
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: European Commission Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: REGULATION
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

How does this new initiative relate to past and possible future initiatives, and to other EU policies?
Building on the Commission Communication on the 2030 climate and energy framework, in October 2014 the European Council agreed on the climate and energy policy framework for the European Union. It was agreed, for 2030, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% domestically as well as on EU-wide renewable energy and energy efficiency targets. For transport (which represents more than 30% of final energy consumption and 24% of EU greenhouse gas emissions) the Council asked for a comprehensive and technology neutral approach for the promotion of emissions reduction and energy efficiency, for electric transportation and for renewable energy sources also after 2020, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and risks related to fossil fuel dependency.
Subsequently, the Energy Union Package3 stated that the EU needs to speed up energy efficiency and decarbonisation in the transport sector, its progressive switch to alternative fuels and the integration of the energy and transport systems. The 2030 objectives are consistent with the EU’s longer term vision for the transport sector. The February 2011 European Council agreed to reduce economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% in 2050 compared to 1990. In this context the 2011 Roadmap for moving to a low carbon economy in 2050 set out high level greenhouse gas emission milestones for the transition towards a competitive and secure low carbon economy, the different sectoral contributions, and the feasibility of the trajectory. In parallel the 2011 Transport White Paper focussed on transforming the transport sector to support mobility and increase transport competitiveness. This was in the context of reducing transport greenhouse gas emissions by 60% by 2050 compared to 1990 and by around 20% by 2030 compared to emissions in 2008. Transport greenhouse gas emissions covered by the 2030 Climate and Energy package fall into two categories: 1) CO2 emissions covered by the Emission Trading System (aviation and electricity used by rail) 2) the non-ETS sectors (road, diesel rail, inland waterway). The non-ETS sector (which covers most transport emissions) is required to reduce its emissions by 30% compared to 2005. Bunker fuels for international maritime transport are not included in the 2030 emission reduction targets of the EU. Decarbonisation’s implications for achieving the EU’s air quality objectives also give ubstantial potential for synergies. Risks related to fossil fuel dependency of the EU transport sector, in particular oil, as are analysed in 2013 Commission Communication “Clean Power for Transport: A European alternative fuels strategy which supports a comprehensive mix of alternative fuels, thereby ensuring technological neutrality and diversification of energy supply. Because there is no single fuel solution, all main lternative fuel options are pursued, with a focus on the specific long-term needs of each transport mode and their potential for oil substitution.

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42
Title: Alternative fuels and infrastructure in seven non-EU markets – Final report
Author: European Commission, DG MOVE
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Ecofys (R. Winkel, C. Hamelinck, M. Bardout, C. Bucquet, S. Ping, M. Cuijpers) and PwC (D. Artuso, S. Bonafede) Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: USA
Forum Area 3: BRASIL Forum Area 4: INDIA

In Europe transport is responsible for a quarter of the greenhouse gas emissions, but in countries like the USA and Brazil this is more than 30% and 40% respectively. While in other sectors the emissions go down, transport emissions continue to increase. Alternative fuels have prominent advantages for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. Furthermore they help alleviating the dependence on fossil fuel consumption in the transport sector. However, the switch from current fuels to the alternative fuels requires a fuel infrastructure change, since most of the alternative fuels are not drop-in fuels (e.g. electricity, CNG, LNG, ethanol, hydrogen). This study examines how alternative transport fuels and infrastructure, which are expected to play a crucial role in the transport sector’s future, develop in other world regions. It aims to contribute to the development and implementation of a European transport strategy effectively promoting alternative modes of transportation and safeguarding the EU’s transport industry’s leading position. The report contains concise case studies to illustrate the discussion with practical examples and to further discuss implications for the EU’s alternative transportation strategy.

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43
Title: The EU system for the certification of sustainable biofuels
Author: European Court of Auditors
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: European Court of Auditors, 12, rue Alcide De Gasperi, 1615 Luxembourg. European Union July 2016. ISBN 978-92-872-5283-8 ISSN 1977-5679 doi:10.2865/82411. Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: REGULATION
Forum Area 3: STANDARTIZATION Forum Area 4: COMPETITION RULES, WTO

I. The ‘Renewable Energy Directive’ (RED) requires each Member State to ensure that by 2020 the share of energy from renewable sources used in all forms of transport is at least 10 % of the final consumption of energy in transport. In practice, considering the present stage of technical development and possibilities to use alternative energies in transport, the 10 % target can be achieved only through a substantial use of biofuels.
II. Biofuels emit fewer greenhouse gases (GHG), CO2 in particular, than fossil fuels, because the quantity of carbon emitted during combustion is equal only to the amount absorbed by the source plants during growth. However, the sustainability of biofuels as a source of renewable energy is compromised by additional emissions due to land use change.
III. To ensure that biofuels placed on the EU market are sustainable, the RED lays down a number of sustainability criteria to be respected by economic operators. Furthermore, only biofuels certified as sustainable can be taken into account by the Member States for the achievement of their 10 % transport target. The sustainability of most biofuels placed on the EU market is certified by voluntary schemes recognised by the Commission. The recognition decisions are valid for 5 years and are issued after the positive assessment of the schemes’ certification procedures.
IV. The audit addressed the question ‘Have the Commission and Member States set up a reliable certification system for sustainable biofuels?’ We conclude that, because of weaknesses in the Commission’s recognition procedure and subsequent supervision of voluntary schemes, the EU certification system for the sustainability of biofuels is not fully reliable.
V. We found that the assessments carried out by the Commission as a basis for the recognition of voluntary schemes did not adequately cover some important aspects necessary to ensure the sustainability of biofuels. In particular, the Commission did not require voluntary schemes to verify that the biofuel production they certify does not cause significant risks of negative socioeconomic effects, such as land tenure conflicts, forced/child labour, poor working conditions for farmers and dangers to health and safety. Similarly, the impact of indirect land-use changes (ILUC) on the sustainability of biofuels is not covered by this assessment. Although we acknowledge the technical difficulties in assessing the impact of ILUC, the relevance of the EU sustainability certification system is undermined without this information.VI. Furthermore, the Commission granted recognition decisions to voluntary schemes which did not have appropriate
verification procedures to ensure that the origin of biofuels produced from waste was indeed waste, or that, as required by the RED directive, biofuel feedstocks cultivated in the European Union fulfil the EU environmental requirements for agriculture. VII. Some recognised schemes were insufficiently transparent or had governance structures comprising only representatives from few economic operators, thus increasing the risk of conflict of interest and preventing an effective
communication with other stakeholders. VIII. The Commission does not supervise the functioning of recognised voluntary schemes. Since the recognition decision
is issued on the basis of a documentary review of the certification procedures, the lack of supervision means that the Commission cannot obtain assurance that voluntary schemes actually apply the certification standards presented for recognition. Furthermore, the Commission has no means to detect alleged infringements of voluntary schemes’ rules as there is no specific complaint system in place and the Commission does not verify whether complaints
directly addressed to voluntary schemes are correctly dealt with by them. IX. As regards the achievement of the 10 % transport target, Member States are responsible for ensuring that the statistics concerning sustainable biofuels reported to the Commission are reliable. We found that these statistics might
be overestimated, because Member States could report as sustainable biofuel whose sustainability was not verified. There were also problems with the comparability of data reported by the Member States. X. Based on the audit observations, the Court formulates the following recommendations:
1. For future recognitions, the Commission should carry out a more comprehensive assessment of voluntary schemes to ensure that the schemes:
(i) assess the extent to which certified biofuels production entails a significant risk of negative socioeconomic effects and of ILUC. To this end, the Commission should require voluntary schemes to report once a year based on their certification activities any relevant information concerning the above mentioned risk;
(ii) effectively verify that EU biofuel feedstock producers comply with EU environmental requirements for agriculture; (iii) provide sufficient evidence of the origin of waste and residues used for the production of biofuels. 2. For future recognitions, the Commission should assess whether the voluntary schemes’ governance reduces the risk of conflict of interests and request the voluntary schemes to ensure transparency. 3. The Commission should supervise recognised voluntary schemes by: (i) checking that the schemes’certification operations comply with the standards presented for recognition; (ii) requesting voluntary schemes to set up a transparent complaints system. 4. The Commission should propose that the Member States support their statistics with evidence on the reliability of the biofuels quantities reported. 5. To ensure comparability of the statistics on sustainable biofuels and to increase assurance on the reliability of data on advanced biofuels, the Commission should propose to the Member States a harmonisation of the definition of waste substances.

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44
Title: Trends and projections in Europe 2016 – Tracking progress towards Europe’s climate and energy targets
Author: European Environment Agency
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: European Environment Agency, 6 Kongens Nytorv, 1050 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: REGULATION
Forum Area 3: FUNDAMENTALS, DEFINITIONS Forum Area 4: SUSTAINABILITY

The 2017 edition of the European Environment Agency (EEA) Trends and projections in Europe report confirms that the European Union (EU) is well on track to meet its climate and energy targets for 2020. Official data for 2015 show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have already decreased beyond the 20 % reduction target and energy use from renewable sources is steadily growing and getting closer to the 20 % target. Energy consumption levels, while currently considered to be on track to meet the EU energy efficiency target, have increased slightly meaning greater efforts are needed to reach this target (see Figure ES.1). Policies are playing an important role in driving the overall EU trends observed since 2005, in particular through a sustained increase in renewable energy use. According to preliminary estimates for 2016, greenhouse gas emissions show only a modest decrease compared with 2015, when GHG emissions increased for the first time since 2010. The reduction in 2016 took place despite an increase in transport emissions. Primary energy consumption increased in 2016, for the second consecutive year. This increase follows a large drop in consumption in 2014, due to an exceptionally warm winter that resulted in a particularly low energy demand for heating. Insufficient progress has been achieved so far towards the 10 % target for renewables set for the transport sector for 2020.

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45
Title: Study on the use of ethyl and methyl alcohol as alternative fuels in shipping
Author: European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA)
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Joanne Ellis (SSPA Sweden AB), Kim Tanneberger (LR EMEA). SSPA Project Number: 20157412. Proposed by: ABENGOA
Forum Area 1: MARITIME Forum Area 2: ALCOHOLS
Forum Area 3: REGULATION Forum Area 4:

Methyl and ethyl alcohol fuels, also referred to as methanol and ethanol, are good potential alternatives for reducing both the emissions and carbon footprint of ship operations. As they are sulphur-free, use of methanol and ethanol fuels would ensure compliance with the European Commission Sulphur Directive. The European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) commissioned this study to gain more information about the benefits and challenges associated with these fuels and to evaluate their potential for the shipping industry.

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46
Title: DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
Author: Official Journal of the European Union
Publication Year: 2009
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This Directive establishes a common framework for the promotion of energy from renewable sources. It sets mandatory national targets for the overall share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy and for the share of energy from renewable sources in transport. It lays down rules relating to statistical transfers between Member States, joint projects between Member States and with third countries, guarantees of origin, administrative procedures, information and training, and access to the electricity grid for energy from renewable sources. It establishes sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids.

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47
Title: Potential of biofuels for shipping
Author: Florentinus A., Hamelinck C., Van den Bos A., Winkel R. and Cuijpers M.
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: ECOFYS Netherlands B.V. Kanaalweg 15G, 3526 KL Utrecht. January 2012. Project number: BIONL11332 by order of: European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: MARITIME Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: REGULATION Forum Area 4: SUSTAINABILITY

There is a market for biofuels to be introduced in ships based on current policy and support schemes, high operational costs and environmental benefits. It is technically possible to replace marine fossil fuels with biofuels for use in ship engines. The most relevant parameters limiting the potential of biofuels today are: availability, technological development, technical integration, and operational consequences. However, although market incentives are there, and it is technological possible, still the introduction of biofuels is limited to a few applied test projects and local initiatives. The following conclusions were drafted by Ecofys on market barriers that need to be addressed in order to accelerate the introduction of biofuels in the shipping sector. The main market barrier that should be addressed is the fact that the market incentives in place (obligation within the Renewable Energy Directive, and the sulphur restrictions within the MARPOL legislation) are affecting different market parties in the marine fuel supply chain. Bunker parties could be affected in the fuel obligation, where ship owners are responsible for meeting the lower sulphur content in their used fuels and for other environmental impacts of their shipping (such as spills, waste etc) and also will have the exposure benefits of green imaging or profiling. Introducing biofuels to the shipping sector will have both opportunities and threats to the current market players in the fuel supply chain. The major opportunity would be the ability to shift position in the supply or rather value chain (upstream – downstream) if i.e. ship owners would produce biofuels themselves or cooperate with new biofuel entries in the marine market. This could be a threat to the larger players in the conventional market which have position in both fossil fuel supply as well as shipping. There is no large experience of biofuels use in ship engines. Known R&D projects that investigate the possibilities are all private company initiatives, and applied in operational ships. Public information is limited in availability. So, there are still some uncertainties around a full scale introduction of biofuels concerning the technical aspects. Current research and stakeholder interviews show contradicting arguments and only small scale test results are available, as a clear indication of first orientations by current market players. Especially the Health, Safety, Security and Environment aspects in the operational situation should be investigated further for introduction of biofuels on a substantial scale (e.g. a fixed percentage for every ship to use biofuels). The known restraints from the market concerning biofuels (long term storage related to unstable fuel quality and micro biological growth, water content leading to acidity, degraded low-temperature flow properties) are based on unfamiliarity with biofuels in this sector. The consequences of using biofuels for the operational side seem limited if lower blends are used. Biofuels do need special attention if used in higher or 100% blends (mainly due to the higher water content which needs frequent monitoring). This asks for training and integration within the stringent HSSE management on board of ships. Legislation for shipping is limited to a low level of detail, and not so much EU dominated and highly detailed as for road transport which operates more local/ national. For shipping the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is of major importance and acts on a global scale where a worldwide level playing field is of strong importance. This could be a hurdle for the introduction of biofuels, if the RED for example would be prolonged actively towards the shipping sector. Production costs of biofuels are still higher than for fossil marine fuels. However, the uncertainty in technological development, scaling and therefore cost reduction could lead to a competitive situation, if marine fuels are to be increasing in price, and if the obligation incentive for biofuels remains within the RED. This remains an unpredictable factor in the future marine fuel market with strong effect onthe introduction of biofuels.

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48
Title: Waste-based feedstock and biofuels market in Europe
Author: GREENEA
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: GREENEA 5 chemin des Perrières, 17330 Coivert – France Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Current situation on the waste-based feedstock and biofuel markets. Overview of UCO and UCOME prices. Map of current and planned plants, capacity development. Market trends, future opportunities and challenges

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49
Title: Economical and Technological Statement regarding Integration and Storage of Renewable Energy in the Energy Sector by Production of Green Synthetic Fuels for Utilization in Fuel Cells
Author: GreenSynFuels
Publication Year: 2011
OPEN
Source: Final Project Report, March 2011. Report Editor: Danish Technological Institute. Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: ALCOHOLS Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: GASIFICATION Forum Area 4:

This report constitutes the dissemination of the EUDP project Green Synthetic Fuels (GreenSynFuels). The purpose of the project is to select and validate technology concepts for the establishment of a Danish production of green synthetic fuels primarily for fuel cells. The feasibility of the selected concepts is assessed trough a techno-economical calculation, which includes mass and energy balances and economics including CAPEX and OPEX assessments. It is envisioned by the project partners that a production of green synthetic fuels, such as methanol, can 1) bring stability to a future electricity grid with a high share of renewable energy, 2) replace fossil fuels in the transport sector, and 3) boost Danish green technology export. In the project, two technology concepts were derived through carefully considerations and plenum discussions by the project group members: Concept 1) is clearly the most favored by the project group and is therefore analyzed for its technoeconomic feasibility. Using mass and energy balances the technical perspectives of the concept were investigated, along with an economic breakdown of the CAPEX and OPEX cost of the methanol production plant. The plant was technically compared to a traditional methanol production plant using gasified biomass. The project group has decided to focus on large scale plants, as the scale economics favor large scale plants. Therefore, the dimensioning input of the concept 1) plant is 1000 tons wood per day. This is truly a large scale gasification plant; however, in a methanol synthesis context the plant is not particularly large. The SOEC electrolyzer unit is dimensioned by the need of hydrogen to balance the stoichiometric ratio of the methanol synthesis reaction, which will result in 141 MW installed SOEC. The resulting methanol output is 1,050 tons methanol per day. In comparison to a traditional methanol synthesis plant operating on biomass gasification without electrolysis, the plant methanol output is doubled and the methanol production efficiency is boosted from 59 % to 71 %. The total plant efficiency was 81.6 %. The economic analysis revealed that green methanol can indeed be produced at prices very close to the current oil price. In the scenario using the present energy prices and assuming that the critical plant components were readily available, the methanol production was found to be 120 USD/barrel equivalents, which is very close to the current oil price. Interestingly, it was found from the studies that the methanol production prices are not favored by the expected increasing market of cheap electricity, as the general energy prices are expected to increase, see figure below. However, it will be possible to use the plant as an intermediate storage of renewable energy, and thereby increase the share of renewable energy in the energy system. The figure below also shows that the use of SOEC as the electrolyzer significantly improves the production price and plant economy.

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50
Title: Biofrontiers – Responsible innovation for tomorrow’s liquid fuels
Author: Harrison, P, Malins, C, and Searle, S.
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: The International Council on Clean Transportation. Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: BIOMASS RESOURCES
Forum Area 3: FINANCING Forum Area 4: SUSTAINABILITY

The Biofrontiers project has set out to shed light on this challenge, bringing together stakeholders from industry and civil society to explore the conditions and boundaries under which such fuels might be developed in a sustainable manner. Within this project, we have considered only non-food feedstocks for alternative fuels. Each stakeholder has brought unique insight to the table, and where knowledge gaps have existed, we have sought to fill them through analysis. Based on more than a year of exchanges, this report presents a vision of a path forward for European fuels policy. The challenges faced can be broadly grouped into two areas: Sustainability and Investment Security.

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51
Title: Near-Term Feasibility of Alternative Jet Fuels
Author: Hileman I. J., Ortiz S. D., Bartis T. J., Wong M. H., Donohoo E. P., Weiss A. M., Waitz A. I.
Publication Year: 2009
OPEN
Source: RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138, 7 January 2009 RAND Corporation and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: BIOMASS RESOURCES
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Regarding the benefits derived from producing and using alternative jet fuels, the study found that the economic benefits of producing alternative liquid fuels extend to all petroleum users. In particular, producing alternative liquid fuels yields benefits to commercial aviation, whether or not those fuels are used in aviation. Finally, moving to an ultralow-sulfur (ULS) specification for Jet A would reduce aviation’s impact on air quality. From its findings, the research team recommends the following:
• Measures designed to lower GHG emissions should be broad and place a price on GHG emissions, allowing economically efficient choices to be made across multiple sectors. Aviation should not be treated differently from other sectors.
• Measures designed to promote alternative-fuel use in aviation should consider the potentially large GHG releases associated with land-use changes required for cultivating crops for producing biomass or renewable oils.
• A standard methodology should be developed for assessing life-cycle GHG inventories and impacts of producing and using aviation fuels that takes into account key inputs in producing the fuels and aviation-specific effects associated with high-altitude emissions of gases other than CO2.
• To improve air quality, the adoption of a reduced-sulfur standard or a ULS jet fuel should be considered, but economic and climate costs and benefits must be weighed carefully.
• Research and testing should be performed using emission measurements from alternative jet fuels to understand the influence of fuel composition on emissions, enabling moreeffective assessments of the likely effects of deploying alternative aviation fuels.
• Long-term fundamental research should be supported on the creation of alternative middle-distillate fuels for use in ground transportation and aviation.

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52
Title: Analysis of the current development of household UCO collection systems in the EU
Author: Hillairet F., Allemandou V., Golab K.
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: GREENEA The project was supported by the European Climate Foundation. Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study estimates that currently less than 50,000 tonnes of UCO gets collected per year from households across Europe. At the same time, potential resources should be at the level of 800,000 – 900,000 tonnes per year. This results in around 800,000 tonnes of UCO still to capture. However, as household collection has to be organized from scratch in the majority of the countries, capturing all the resources will take time and require a long-term development scenario. We estimate that until 2030, maximally around 200,000 tonnes per year could be collected in the case of active and continuous support of Member States. Yet, it has to be remembered that this is a very optimistic scenario that would involve uninterrupted and very dynamic development of household UCO collection system from today till 2030.

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53
Title: IATA 2015 Report on Alternative Fuels
Author: International Air Transport Association
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: IATA 33, Route de l’Aéroport, 1215 Geneva 15 Airport, Switzerland. ISBN 978-92-9252-870-6. Proposed by: SkyNRG
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: STANDARTIZATION
Forum Area 3: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 4:

The alternative jet fuel sector has continued to progress in 2015. A total of 22 airlines have now used alternative fuel for over 2000 commercial flights. For an industry that remains young, this is impressive, particularly when less than a decade ago the entire concept was labeled as hypothetical. In September 2013, the 38th Session of the ICAO Assembly reaffirmed the role of ICAO to facilitate and support States and stakeholders in their efforts to stabilize their emissions at 2020 levels. This Assembly also agreed on the development of a global marketbased mechanism for international aviation. This has led to increasing amounts of work being conducted within ICAO’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection and the creation of the Alternative Fuels Task Force. In many instances airline representatives are contributing valuable knowledge in to the CAEP process which is developing a regulatory and logistical foundation for increased and global alternative fuel use. This ICAO activity is elevating the imperative to address incompatibilities with regionally focused sustainability and alternative fuel accounting standards. This is important work and presented in some detail in Chapter 2. This is not to say other activity has slowed. In fact, 22 new initiatives have commenced in 2015 taking the total number of multi-stakeholder initiatives to close to 100. While price remains a challenge, especially from the sharp decline in energy prices, there is growing evidence that with the support of appropriate policy mechanisms, innovative business cases can be developed to enable production to evolve from demonstration scale to commercial scale. Chapters 5 and 6 highlight some particularly impressive projects and notable developments contributing to the industry efforts for wider commercial deployment of alternative jet fuel. With a number of new production pathways currently in the ASTM International approval process 2016 is likely to certify some additional methods for producing drop-in alternative jet fuel. With the prospect of additional supply options, regular supply and use by an airline, and increasing policy momentum from States, 2016 has the potential to be a significant year in the evolution of alternative jet fuel use in aviation.

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54
Title: Sustainable Aviation Fuel Roadmap
Author: International Air Transport Association
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: IATA 33, Route de l’Aéroport, 1215 Geneva 15 Airport, Switzerland. ISBN 978-92-9252-704-4. Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: GASIFICATION
Forum Area 3: BIOCHEMICAL Forum Area 4: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS

This roadmap provides detailed information on a number of important topics concerning the commercialization and deployment of Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF). So far deployment has been limited to demonstration or sponsored commercial flights. While these flights have been excellent examples of both the performance and potential for SAF, until this can be incorporated into an airline‟s „business as usual‟ plans, the achievement potential for CO2 reductions from SAF will not be realized. Following the current period of small series or demonstration flights, the next phase of sustainable fuel deployment will focus on supply to certain airports, either for single airlines which have concluded longerterm offtake agreements with SAF suppliers, such as United/Altair, British Airways/Solena and Cathay Pacific/Fulcrum, or even for all airlines operating on that airport, such as the plans for Amsterdam and Oslo airports. However, the total volume of engagements so far is small and more will have to be done to meet the SAF targets set by various countries and multi-stakeholder initiatives. A growing number of such initiatives have been created all over the world, gathering producers and users of SAF as well as government agencies. Where applicable, fostering SAF feedstock production to the benefit of rural economies is also an important goal. Only drop-in fuels are considered in this roadmap, meaning a fuel that is fully compatible with current aircraft and infrastructure. The global nature of aviation has been taken into account with a detailed consideration of SAF accounting policies and sustainability legislation. With the current development of a Market Based Mechanism (MBM) under the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a common global
understanding of regulatory aspects addressing SAF will become increasingly important. Furthermore, effective use of government policy mechanisms and innovative financing concepts will be necessary components of this process. The concept of sustainable growth requires the aviation sector to meet today‟s needs without depleting the resources available to future generations. The industry is conscious of aviation‟s environmental impacts and its contribution to climate change. In 2008 the aviation industry collectively agreed to the world‟s first set of sector-specific climate change targets. These targets are: 1. 1.5% fuel efficiency improvement from 2009 until 2020 2. Carbon neutral growth from 2020 3. A 50% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050 relative to a 2005 baseline. Three pathways are already approved for use of SAF in commercial aircraft, some at blends up to a maximum of 50%. These are: Fischer Tropsch (FT) – this process converts solid biomass (including residual waste) into a synthetic gas and then processes the gas into a mixture of hydrocarbons including road and aviation fuels (often referred to as Biomass-to-Liquid – BtL). BtL fuel can be blended to a maximum of 50% with fossil kerosene. Hydrotreated Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) – this process converts oils into fuel in a similar way that crude fossil oil is refined. The process is commercially available but concern over the sustainability of raw
materials and high cost of waste oils has restricted uptake in aviation. Algal oils are in the early stages of development. HEFA fuel can be blended to a maximum of 50% with fossil kerosene. Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic (SIP) – Aviation fuel which is produced from hydro-processed fermented sugars. The process converts sugar molecules to the hydrocarbon farnesane which can be blended to a maximum of 10% with fossil kerosene. Sustainability harmonization assessment: Current legislation in several countries requires compliance with sustainability criteria developed for use in the road transport sector, and although not widely used today, any SAF reported within these systems would also have to comply with these criteria. Given the global nature of aviation it will be impractical for airlines to have to deal with varying standards from different jurisdictions, hence the harmonization objective. The most advanced and widely implemented standards exist in the European Union under the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and in the United States under the Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2). Section 4
provides considerable detail on the main similarities and differences between the schemes, including a strategy for developing harmonization proposals. The preferred harmonization option is mutual recognition between the RED and the RFS2. This option is based on the mutual recognition of the sustainability requirements for biofuels in national legislation, as opposed to harmonization of voluntary schemes. An alternative approach to mutual recognition of the RED
and RFS2 is to develop a „Meta-standard‟ (or sustainability framework) for SAF. The Meta-standard would specify minimum key requirements, such as sustainability principles and/or criteria, that SAF producers would need to meet in order to be recognized by the aviation industry or governments internationally.
Accounting for SAF: Similar to sustainability legislation and compliance, how to account for SAF usage varies in different regions of the world. While accounting for fuel used my seem simple, calculating the attributable Green House Gas (GHG) benefit must be determined according to a number of variables. This is important given that incentives for SAF use are often contingent on achieving a certain level of GHG reduction. Section 5 provides a detailed description of the different alternatives considered. The preferred alternative is a hybrid mass balance book and claim accounting system. We believe it is logical for the airline industry to
use the existing mass balance chain of custody rules in operation for the road biofuel supply chain as much as possible until a defined „control point‟. From that control point onwards a book and claim system using SAF certificates will allow airlines to claim the use of SAF and the MBM may provide the appropriate
platform to trade sustainability performance (i.e. emission allowances) with other airlines. Effective policy: Policy instruments need to be applied to result in action. There is not one standardized perfect application of policy mechanisms. Different economies, geographies, and government priorities will likely dictate a different application of instruments. Section 6 details a number of different policy considerations. What is consistent is that jurisdictions must influence numerous areas to enable SAF production to advance. Some of these include: 1. Level playing field (or policy equality) 2. Research 3. De-risk public and private investment in roduction
4. Incentivize airlines to use SAF from an early stage 5. Support robust international sustainability criteria 6. Foster local opportunities Financing models: A considerable challenge for developing SAF production facilities at scale is the significant capital involved, the long-term nature of such infrastructure, and the price uncertainty of the end product. The combination of these factors can make securing debt or equity financing expensive or challenging, and production risk mitigation (such as an airline off-take agreement) difficult. Section 7 presents some different financing models and demonstrations of the sensitivity many projects have to modest changes in the input assumptions. Further, the examples highlight how policy can be effectively applied to influence a projects financial viability.
Finally there are some excellent real examples to learn from. Given that less than a decade ago, the prospect of flying commercial aircraft on SAF seemed unrealistic due to the associated technical and safety challenges, it is impressive that in a short time a number of large projects, including some significant off-take
agreements, have been signed between producers and airlines. Section 8 looks at some of these success stories in more detail.

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55
Title: Fact Sheet Alternative Fuel
Author: International Air Transport Association
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: IATA 33, Route de l’Aéroport, 1215 Geneva 15 Airport, Switzerland. Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Currently, a number of alternative jet fuel production pathways are more expensive than fossil Jet A/A1. Risks for investment in production infrastructure can be mitigated by carefully designed policy to encourage the development of SAF production capacity. In the United States, a combination of incentives according to the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), support for building up new-technology production plants and incentives for agriculture, under the right conditions, can open the possibility of price-competitive sustainable aviation fuel being available. The Netherlands is the only EU Member State that recognizes the use of aviation biofuels as counting towards the EU renewable energy goals. The EU has recently announced plans to revise the Renewable Energy Directive, including proposals to increase incentives for sustainable aviation fuels. Indonesia has introduced an alternative jet fuel mandate of 2% commencing in 2018, rising to 5% by 2025
 The effectiveness of different policy mechanisms for commercially deploying meaningful quantities of sustainable alternative jet fuel is being studied by the ICAO Alternative Fuel Task Force during the CAEP/11 cycle (2016-2019).

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56
Title: Overview of Alternative Jet Fuels in 2014
Author: International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
Publication Year: 2014
OPEN
Source: This paper is an update of the text that was originally published in the IATA 2014 Report on Alternative Fuels as a contribution from ICAO Secretariat. Proposed by: SGAB Core Team
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

There is a long way before a new industry emerges and reaches a significant market penetration. Aviation has achieved successful steps in bringing sustainable alternative fuels to technical maturity for use in commercial aircraft and numerous flights have demonstrated that the fuels can be safely and regularly used. Stakeholders all over the world are now pushing for the next step, and initiatives continue to multiply in an increasing number of countries, to set up production or assess the feasibility of such production. The first regular commercial production should take off by 2016, though still at a limited scale. Economics are a prominent barrier to overcome for initial deployment, which needs to be articulated with environmental goals and policies, as, during the preliminary phase, reducing environmental impacts may not be without cost. Long term perspectives and industry time scales should be included in the equation as aviation has limited expectation to move away from liquid fuel in the short to mid-term. Stabilizing aviation GHG emissions in spite of the impressive forecasted growth of air traffic requires developing alternative fuels and associated technologies from now. The issue is certainly complex, especially from the point of view of the availability of sustainable resources, when considering the production levels required to achieve the aspirational goals. In that sense, progressing together with a better understanding and shared evaluation of the potential for future emissions reduction is a cornerstone to inform decision-making. The work being undertaken by ICAO, and within CAEP by the Alternative Fuel Task Force is a key contribution to this effort, that will also need an increased cooperation with the other stakeholders from the bioenergy sector.

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57
Title: EU Reference Scenario 2016 Energy, transport and GHG emissions – Trends to 2050
Author: E3M-Lab: Prof. P. Capros PRIMES model: A. De Vita, N. Tasios, P. Siskos, M. Kannavou, A. Petropoulos, S. Evangelopoulou, M. Zampara, D. Papadopoulos, Ch. Nakos et al. GEM-E3 model: L. Paroussos, K. Fragiadakis, S.Tsani, P. Karkatsoulis et al. Prometheus model and PRIMES gas: P. Fragkos, N. Kouvaritakis, et al. IIASA -GAINS model: L. Höglund-Isaksson, W. Winiwarter, P. Purohit, A. Gomez-Sanabria IIASA –GLOBIOM/G4M models: S. Frank, N. Forsell, M. Gusti, P. Havlík, M. Obersteiner EuroCARE: H. P. Witzke, Monika Kesting
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The purpose of this publication is to present the new “EU Reference Scenario 2016” (“Reference Scenario”).
This report is an update of the previous Reference Scenario published in 20131. It focuses on the EU energy system, transport and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission developments, including specific sections on emission trends not related to energy, and on the various interactions among policies in these sectors. Its time horizon as in the 2013 version is up to 2050 and it includes all EU28 Member States individually. The Reference Scenario acts as a benchmark of current policy and market trends. As such, it can help to inform future policy debate and policy making.This report focuses on trend projections – not forecasts. It does not predict how the EU energy, transport and climate landscape will actually change in the future, but merely provides a model-derived simulation of one of its possible future states given certain conditions. It starts from the assumption that the legally binding GHG and RES targets for 2020 will be achieved and that the policies agreed at EU and Member State level until December 2014 will be implemented2. Following this approach, the Reference Scenario can help inform the debate on where currently adopted policies might lead the EU and whether further policy development, including for the longer term, is needed. The fuel price projections have been updated to take into account recent developments. Some technology development projections have changed since the EU Reference Scenario 2013 and therefore technology cost assumptions have been updated based on more recent evidence5. Projections are presented from 2015 onwards in 5- year- steps until 2050.

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58
Title: Annual Report 2016
Author: IEA – Advanced Motor Fuels
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Proposed by: IFP – Energies Nouvelles
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Liquid crude-oil-based fuels have dominated the transportation sector for many years and probably will do so for many years to come. Local air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by the use of fossil oil-based fuels are major concerns for the ever-growing transport sector. However, clear signs indicate an understanding of the benefits and the willingness to convert to more sustainable fuels in the future. Because of existing liquid-based infrastructure, liquid biofuels or electrofuels could become significantly important since they combine liquid fuels with sustainability.

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59
Title: Technology Roadmap – Biofuels for Transport
Author: IEA Renewable Energy Division
Publication Year: 2011
OPEN
Source: International Energy Agency, 9 rue de la Fédération 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France. Proposed by: ABENGOA, CONCAWE, IEA.
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2: REGULATION
Forum Area 3: SUSTAINABILITY Forum Area 4:

Key Findings: Biofuels – liquid and gaseous fuels derived from organic matter – can play an important role in reducing CO2 emissions in the transport sector, and ehancing energy security. By 2050, biofuels could provide 27% of total transport fuel and contribute in particular to the replacement of diesel, kerosene and jet fuel. The projected use of biofuels could avoid around 2.1 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year when produced sustainably. To meet this vision, most conventional biofuel technologies need to improve conversion efficiency, cost and overall sustainability. In addition, advanced biofuels need to be commercially deployed, which requires substantial further investment in research, development and demonstration (RD&D), and specific support for commercial-scale advanced biofuel plants. Support policies should incentivise the most efficient biofuels in terms of life-cycle greenhouse-gas performance, and be backed by a strong policy framework which ensures that food security and biodiversity are not compromised, and that social impacts are positive. This includes sustainable land-use management and certification schemes, as well as support measures that promote “lowrisk” feedstocks and efficient processing technologies. Meeting the biofuel demand in this roadmap would require around 65 exajoules (EJ) of biofuel feedstock, occupying around 100 million hectares (Mha) in 2050. This poses a considerable challenge given competition for land and feedstocks from rapidly growing demand for food and fibre, and for additional 80 EJ of biomass for generating heat and power. However, with a sound policy framework in place, it should be possible to provide the required 145 EJ of total biomass for biofuels, heat and electricity from residues and wastes, along with sustainably grown energy crops. Trade in biomass and biofuels will become increasingly important to supply biomass to areas with high production and/or consumption levels, and can help trigger investments and mobilise biomass potentials in certain regions. Scale and efficiency improvements will reduce biofuel production costs over time. In a low-cost scenario, most biofuels could be competitive with fossil fuels by 2030. In a scenario in which production costs are strongly coupled to oil prices, they would remain slightly more expensive than fossil fuels. While total biofuel production costs from 2010 to 2050 in this roadmap range between USD 11 trillion to USD 13 trillion, the marginal savings or additional costs compared to use of gasoline/diesel are in the range of only +/-1% of total costs for all transport fuels.

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60
Title: Technology Readiness Level: Guidance Principles for Renewable Energy technologies
Author: Antonio De Rose, Marina Buna, Carlo Strazza, Nicolo Olivieri, Tine Stevens, Leen Peeters, Daniel Tawil-Jamault
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The European Union’s research framework programme Horizon2020 uses the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to describe the scope of its calls for proposals; the definitions provided, however, are meant as an overall guidance and do not refer specifically to renewable energy technologies. This study was meant to firstly assess the use of TRL in the energy field at European level: a desk research, complemented by surveys and interviews with stakeholders coming from the institutional, industrial and research field, led to the conclusion that there is still a lack of common understanding around the concept of TRL and further guiding principles would be needed. The study aimed also to develop guidance documents defining TRL in 10 renewable energy fields; a Guide of Guides was conceived to be the backbone for any technology-specific definition and, based on its instructions, 10 guidance documents were produced and validated by stakeholders in a two step-approach: first through an online survey and then during a one-day workshop. A subcontractor, acting as reviewer ensured the documents produced were consistent to update the Guide of Guides; its analysis identified technology-specific issues as well as a set of common trends for each TRL that may serve as a reference to develop guidance documents in any other energy technology field.

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61
Title: Access-to-finance conditions for Investments in Bio-Based Industries and the Blue Economy
Author: Jason Leoussis, Paulina Brzezicka
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Innovation Finance Advisory, European Investment Bank Advisory Services, EC Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: FINANCING Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The study collects information on the investment and access-to-finance conditions for Bio-based Industries (BBI)1 and Blue Economy (BE)2 projects and companies in the European Union (EU), and evaluates the need and potential for dedicated public (risk-sharing) financial instruments (PFI)3 as well as for other policy actions at the EU and Member State (MS) levels that can catalyse (crowd-in) private sector investments in BBI and BE. The study concludes the following: BBI and BE projects face issues accessing private capital. Regulation and market and demand framework conditions are perceived as the most important drivers and incentives but also present the biggest risks and challenges for both BBI and BE project promoters (PP) as well as financial market participants (FMP) to invest in the Bioeconomy. The main funding gaps in financing the Bioeconomy exist in (i) BBI and BE projects scaling up from pilot to demonstration projects and (ii) particularly in BBI, moving from demonstration to flagship/first-of-a-kind (FOAK) and industrial-scale plants. Existing public financial instruments are utilised but their catalytic impact could be further enhanced. Policy actions and/or new or modified public financial instruments could de-risk BBI and BE investments and catalyse (crowd-in) private capital. The study recommends the following: Establish an effective, stable and supportive regulatory framework for BBI and BE at the EU level, which is essential. Further reinforce awareness about InnovFin and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI), which can match the funding needs of certain BBI and BE projects. Develop a new EU risk-sharing financial instrument dedicated to BBI and BE, potentially taking the form of a thematic investment platform that can meet the needs of BBI and BE projects and mobilise private capital. Explore the creation of an EU-wide contact, information exchange and knowledge sharing platform or other channels to facilitate relationships between BBI and BE project promoters, industry experts, public authorities and financial market participants active or seeking to become active in the Bioeconomy.

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62
Title: Financing Europe’s low carbon, climate resilient future
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Environment Agency (EEA) Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: FINANCING Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This is a reference to a recent European Environment Agency (EEA) study, which assesses the state-of-play of climate finance tracking in Europe and indicates that few European countries have translated their national climate and energy objectives into corresponding investment needs and plans.

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63
Title: Statistical Report 2017
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Fuels Europe Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

High quality, verified and reliable data is essential to support economic and political analysis. For this purpose, FuelsEurope Statistical Report 2017 aims at providing a comprehensive set of statistics about the refining industry that can be used by all stakeholders. It provides the most up-to-date information based on currently available data for the sectorMore specifically, it contains data on global energy markets, oil products demand and international trade flows, fuel specifications, prices and margins, the integration with the petrochemical sector as well as the environmental performance of the EU refining industry. A side navigation feature, as well as colour coding aim to help the readers browse effectively through the document. Each colour corresponds to a specific theme making browsing between subsections user-friendly. Topics are: Oil & Energy, Oil Products, Prices and Margins, Refining, Marketing Infrastructures

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64
Title: Strengthening the role of agricultural and forest biomass in all bioenergy sectors to achieve the EU’s 2030 climate and energy goals
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Copa cogeca Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is the position paper of Copa Cogeca on the recast of RED II. The cooperative reports that the RED II proposal is lacking in ambition in terms of promoting access to the organic carbon market and therefore undermines the achievement of the EU’s climate, energy, bioeconomy and circular economy objectives. Overall, Copa and Cogeca reject the proposal for a RED II Directive in its current form and present the following proposals to the European Council and Parliament so that the initial Commission proposal can be amended. Copa and Cogeca ask for the promotion of the use of feedstocks of biological origin in all bioenergy sectors under the RED II Directive.

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65
Title: Advanced biofuel production via gasification – lessons learned from 200 man-years of research activity with Chalmers’ research gasifier and the GoBiGas demonstration plant
Author: Henrik Thunman, Martin Seemann, Teresa Berdugo Vilches, Jelena Maric, David Pallares, Henrik Ström, Göran Berndes, Pavleta Knutsson, Anton Larsson, Claes Breitholtz & Olga Santos
Publication Year: 2018
OPEN
Source: Energy Science & Engineering Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMETHANE Forum Area 2: GASIFICATION
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This paper presents the main experiences gained and conclusions drawn from the demonstration of a first-of- its- kind wood-based biomethane production plant (20-MW capacity, 150 dry tonnes of biomass/day) and 10 years of operation of the 2–4-MW (10–20 dry tonnes of biomass/day) research gasifier at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. Based on the experience gained, an elaborated outline for commercialization of the technology for a wide spectrum of applications and end products is defined. The main findings are related to the use of biomass ash constituents as a catalyst for the process and the application of coated heat exchangers, such that regular fluidized bed boilers can be retrofitted to become biomass gasifiers. Among the recirculation of the ash streams within the process, presence of the alkali salt in the system is identified as highly important for control of the tar species. Combined with new insights on fuel feeding and reactor design, these two major findings form the basis for a comprehensive process layout that can support a gradual transformation of existing boilers in district heating networks and in pulp, paper and saw mills, and it facilitates the exploitation of existing oil refineries and petrochemical plants for large-scale production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials from biomass and wastes. The potential for electrification of those process layouts are also discussed. The commercialization route represents an example of how biomass conversion develops and integrates with existing industrial and energy infrastructures to form highly effective systems that deliver a wide range of end products. Illustrating the potential, the existing fluidized bed boilers in Sweden alone represent a jet fuel production capacity that corresponds to 10% of current global consumption.

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66
Title: The land use change impact of biofuels consumed in the EU
Author: Hugo Valin (IIASA), Daan Peters (Ecofys), Maarten van den Berg (E4tech), Stefan Frank, Petr Havlik, Nicklas Forsell (IIASA) and Carlo Hamelinck (Ecofys), with further contributions from: Johannes Pirker, Aline Mosnier, Juraj Balkovic, Erwin Schmid, Martina Dürauer and Fulvio di Fulvio (all IIASA)
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: European Comission (ECOFYS, IIASA, E4tech) Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Biofuels are promoted as an option to reduce climate emissions from the transport sector. As most biofuels are currently produced from land based crops, there is a concern that the increased consumption of biofuels requires agricultural expansion at a global scale, leading to additional carbon emissions. This effect is called Indirect Land Use Change, or ILUC. The EU Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) directed the European Commission to develop a methodology to account for the ILUC effect.
The current study serves to provide new insights to the European Commission and other stakeholders about these indirect carbon and land impacts from biofuels consumed in the EU, with more details on production processes and representation of individual feedstocks than was done before. ILUC cannot be observed or measured in reality, because it is entangled with a large number of other changes in agricultural markets at both global and local levels. The effect can only be estimated through the use of models. The current study is part of a continuous effort to improve the understanding and representation of ILUC.

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67
Title: GHG emissions and the cost of carbon abatement for light-duty road vehicles
Author: IPIECA
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: IPIECA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Measures to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are being deployed around the world to reduce the risks posed by climate change. For the transport sector, GHG assessments are based on well-to-wheels methodologies, which take into account emissions from fuel manufacturing, transport and fuel consumption in the vehicle or life-cycle analyses that additionally take into account the emissions during the manufacturing and disposal of the vehicles. This work was undertaken to compare and contrast assumptions and results from three comprehensive public references. The studies were conducted under the auspices of government or independent contractors, with multi-stakeholder engagement including technical contributions from experts in the automotive and fuel industries. This report was commissioned by IPIECA to compare and contrast assumptions and results from the following three key studies.All three studies were conducted under the auspices of an independent or government contractor, and have had the additional benefit of technical contributions from experts in the automotive and fuel industries. The common element of the studies is an evaluation that considers the energy use and GHG emissions associated with fuel production and use in vehicles for various vehicle/fuel pathways. All three studies also include cost estimates for both vehicles and fuels so that a cost of GHG emission abatement can be calculated. These results form the basis for comparison in this report. It should be noted that other metrics that could be considered in a full LCA (e.g. the benefits of lower non- GHG emissions) are not covered by the source studies and consequently do not form part of this report. The C2G report includes emissions from vehicle manufacturing and end-of-life disposal, and so provides a measure of the additional contribution of these elements.

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68
Title: Report confirms that biodiesel reduces CHG emissions
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2018
OPEN
Source: FarmFutures Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOCHEMICAL Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This is a reference citing a report published by a collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, and USDA, which confirms via a comprehensive lifecycle analysis of biodiesel that the latter reduces GHG emissions.

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69
Title: Greenhouse gas emissions in rapeseed cultivation need to be assessed realistically for optimal mitigation
Author: FNR
Publication Year: 2018
OPEN
Source: ufop Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOCHEMICAL Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This reference appeared in the News section of FNR and reports a study conducted by a network of eight partners coordinated by the Thünen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture (Thünen-Institut für Agrarklimaschutz), which concluded to the fact that the nitrous oxide emission factor for GHG accounting in rapeseed is too high for German conditions.

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70
Title: Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of biodiesel in the United States with induced land use change impacts
Author: Rui Chena, Zhangcai Qina, Jeongwoo Hana, Michael Wanga, Farzad Taheripourb, Wallace Tynerb, Don O'Connorc, James Duffieldd
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Elsevier Ltd. Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOCHEMICAL Forum Area 2: USA
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study conducted the updated simulations to depict a life cycle analysis (LCA) of the biodiesel production from soybeans and other feedstocks in the U.S. It addressed in details the interaction between LCA and induced land use change (ILUC) for biodiesel. Relative to the conventional petroleum diesel, soy biodiesel could achieve 76% reduction in GHG emissions without considering ILUC, or 66–72% reduction in overall GHG emissions when various ILUC cases were considered. Soy biodiesel’s fossil fuel consumption rate was also 80% lower than its petroleum counterpart. Furthermore, this study examined the cause and the implication of each key parameter affecting biodiesel LCA results using a sensitivity analysis, which identified the hot spots for fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions of biodiesel so that future efforts can be made accordingly. Finally, biodiesel produced from other feedstocks (canola oil and tallow) were also investigated to contrast with soy biodiesel and petroleum diesel.

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71
Title: Nitrous oxide emissions from winter oilseed rape cultivation
Author: Reiner Rusera,⁎, Roland Fußb, Monique Andresc, Hannes Hegewaldd, Katharina Kesenheimera, Sarah Köbkee, Thomas Räbigerf, Teresa Suarez Quinonesg, Jürgen Augustinc, Olaf Christend, Klaus Ditterte, Henning Kagef, Iris Lewandowskih, Annette Prochnowg,i, Heinz Stichnothej, Heinz Flessab
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Elsevier Ltd. Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., WOSR) is the major oil crop cultivated in Europe. Rapeseed oil is predominantly used for production of biodiesel. The framework of the European Renewable Energy Directive requires that use of biofuels achieves GHG savings of at least 50% compared to use of fossil fuel starting in 2018. However, N2O field emissions are estimated using emission factors that are not specific for the crop and associated with strong uncertainty. N2O field emissions are controlled by N fertilization and dominate the GHG balance of WOSR cropping due to the high global warming potential of N2O. Thus, field experiments were conducted to increase the data basis and subsequently derive a new WOSR-specific emission factor. N2O emissions and crop yields were monitored for three years over a range of N fertilization intensities at five study sites representative of German WOSR production. N2O fluxes exhibited the typical high spatial and temporal variability in dependence on soil texture, weather and nitrogen availability. The annual N2O emissions ranged between 0.24 kg and 5.48 kg N2O-N ha−1 a−1. N fertilization increased N2O emissions, particularly with the highest N treatment (240 kg N ha−1). Oil yield increased up to a fertilizer amount of 120 kg N ha−1, higher N-doses increased grain yield but decreased oil concentrations in the seeds. Consequently oil yield remained constant at higher N fertilization. Since, yield-related emission also increased exponentially with N surpluses, there is potential for reduction of the N fertilizer rate, which offers perspectives for the mitigation of GHG emissions. Our measurements double the published data basis of annual N2O flux measurements in WOSR. Based on this extended dataset we modeled the elationship between N2O emissions and fertilizer N input using an exponential model. The corresponding new N2O emission factor was 0.6% of applied fertilizer N for a common N fertilizer amount under best management practice in WOSR production (200 kg N ha−1 a−1). This factor is substantially lower than the linear IPCC Tier 1 factor (EF1) of 1.0% and other models that have been proposed.

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72
Title: Management Summary – Critical Evaluation of Default Values for the GHG emissions of the Natural Gas Supply Chain
Author: Gert Müller-Syring, Charlotte Große, Melanie Eyßer, Josephine Glandien
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: DBI-GUT Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The goal of this study was to determine the carbon footprint1 (CF) of natural gas distributed in Germany and in Central EU2. Emissions resulting from the production, processing, transport, storage, and distribution of natural gas were considered. The utilization of the best data avail-able and the transparency of the calculations was of paramount importance to the project. It can be concluded that the public availability and transparency of data have a strong influence on the outcomes of study results. The availability of this data can, therefore, be seen to have a direct influence on decision-making at a European level since it cannot always be assumed that representatives of the natural gas industry are part of studies conducted to estimate the carbon footprint.

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73
Title: Carbon Footprint of Natural Gas Critical Evaluation of Default Values for the GHG emissions of the Natural Gas Supply Chain
Author: Gert Müller-Syring, Charlotte Große, Melanie Eyßer, Josephine Glandien
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: DBIGas-undUmwelttechnikGmbH Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GASIFICATION Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is presentation of DBI dealing with GHG emissions modelling for natural gas in the region Central EU. A comparison between the carbon footprint values of natural gas consumed in Central EU with the values computed by EXERGIA is also included.

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74
Title: FINAL REPORT – Critical Evaluation of Default Values for the GHG Emissions of the Natural Gas Supply Chain
Author: Gert Müller-Syring, Charlotte Große, Melanie Eyßer, Josephine Glandien
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: DBI-GUT Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GASIFICATION Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study in particular aims to determine the carbon footprint of natural gas from the source to a defined point of use. The resulting carbon footprint will, therefore, be based on the latest and most reliable data available. The goal of the present study is the determination of the carbon footprint of natural gas distributed in Central EU based on best available data, and the comparison of the results with those of the EXERGIA study. Research of current best available data is focused on the major supplying countries for Central Europe: The Netherlands, Norway and Russia. Moreover, Germany as the main consumer and an important transit country of natural gas will be considered. The input data is relevant for those countries and necessary for the calculation of the CF. Moreover, it includes a description of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which occur on the life cycle stages production, processing, transport, storage and distribution of natural gas. In the course of the impact assessment the effects on climate change (the only impact category) and the results will be interpreted and evaluated.

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75
Title: Low carbon energy and feedstock for the European chemical industry
Author: Dr. Alexis Michael Bazzanella, Dr. Florian Ausfelder,
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e.V. Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOCHEMICAL Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The scope of this study is to analyse how the chemical industry could use breakthrough technologies to further reduce CO2 emissions resulting from the production of its key building blocks. The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on promising low carbon technologies, estimate their potential impact on CO2 emission reductions, and highlight the current technological and financial limitations and barriers.
Promising technologies are available at a relatively advanced stage of development, however their implementation on a wide scale is hard to achieve under the current framework conditions, while we also need to safeguard the benefits and the global competitiveness of this key industrial sector in Europe. This shows the need for a concerted approach between public and private stakeholders to further support an ambitious research and innovation agenda, with a strong focus on industrial relevance. It also shows the need, more than ever, for a close dialogue between public and private stakeholders about the regulatory framework that will allow the shift in the long run.

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76
Title: Carbon Footprint of Natural Gas
Author: Gert Müller-Syring, Charlotte Große, Melanie Eyßer, Josephine Glandien
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: ERDGAS Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GASIFICATION Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a 2-slides file presenting a DBI study which confirms the existing low values for supply chain emissions of natural gas.

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77
Title: A critical review of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) Working paper 2017-5: “Potential greenhouse gas savings from a 2030 greenhouse gas reduction target with indirect emissions accounting for the European Union”
Author: Professor André P.C. Faaij, Distinguished Professor Energy System Analysis, University of Groningen – The Netherlands.
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: ICCT Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The importance of the use of sustainable biomass for our (future) energy and material system in order to replace fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions is highlighted in many key global studies and scenario’s, such the IPCC, IEA, Greenpeace, World Energy Council and many others. The notion that the use of terrestrial biomass needs to meet sustainability criteria to avoid undesired indirect effects is also widely accepted and incorporated. An additional argument for the large scale use of sustainable biomass is the deployment of Carbon Capture and Storage technology in combination with biomass (Bio-CC), which will lead to negative emissions is deemed necessary to achieve the 1,5 – 2 0C GMT change scenario’s this century. This increases the need to deploy biomass further and increase the biomass resource base over time.
A key prerequisite is of course that biomass resources are sustainable and do lead to the net GHG emissions reductions as projected.
The recently made report of ICCT presents a study focusing on deploying elements of consequential LCA to estimate the direct and indirect GHG emissions of biomass sourcing and use, including potential displacement effects on land use or biomass markets. This review deals with a number of key methodological issues versus the consequential LCA approach used by ICCT, goes through a number of example results and draws an overall conclusion on the paper.

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78
Title: EFFECTIVE POLICY DESIGN FOR PROMOTING INVESTMENT IN ADVANCED ALTERNATIVE FUELS
Author: Kristine Bitnere and Stephanie Searle
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: ICCT Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study seeks to understand why policy support for these advanced technologies has not resulted in greater deployment of facilities and scale-up in production. For the purpose of this study, we focus on alternative fuels, including both biofuels and non-biological low-carbon pathways, that rely on emerging technologies and non-food feedstocks and that can offer high GHG savings compared to petroleum; we refer to these pathways as advanced alternative fuel (AAF). The first section of this report briefly reviews barriers to commercialization of AAF, in particular economic and market challenges. The second section reviews existing EU and U.S. policies promoting AAF and evaluates the effectiveness of policy elements in scaling up production capacity. We analyze a number of policy frameworks, including renewable energy targets, GHG emission reduction targets, tax incentives, subsidies, and grant programs at the EU level and in member states, and at the U.S. federal level as well as in the state of California. The third section summarizes and discusses the lessons learned from the experiences of these jurisdictions in promoting AAF. The fourth section introduces principles for effective policy design for supporting investment in AAF production developed from these lessons learned.

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79
Title: Waste and residue availability for advanced biofuel production in EU Member States
Author: Stephanie Y. Searle a, Christopher J. Malins
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Elsevier Ltd. Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The EU is adopting policy measures to promote the use of advanced biofuels for transport made from sustainable sources including wastes and residues. As Member States prepare to implement these policy changes, they will need to understand if they have sufficient resource to meet an advanced biofuel target. This study assesses the availability of agricultural residues, forestry residues, and biogenic wastes that could potentially be used for advanced biofuel production in EU Member States at the present and projected to 2020 and 2030. This analysis incorporates specific information on agricultural, forestry, and waste production, anagement practices, and environmental risks in each Member State in order to model the amounts of residues needed to preserve soil quality and that are utilized in other industries; we exclude these quantities in order to determine the sustainable biomass potential that can be achieved without significant adverse impacts on the environment or biomass markets. We find that most EU Member States are likely to have more than enough sustainably available feedstock to meet the advanced biofuel requirement, and a majority may have more than 10 times the necessary amount. While this study does not assess economic viability of advanced biofuel production, from a resource perspective, the target appears to be achievable in most Member States. Some countries, including Austria, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, and Slovenia, may need to import either feedstock or advanced biofuel from neighboring countries to meet the target.

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80
Title: Potential greenhouse gas savings from a 2030 greenhouse gas reduction target with indirect emissions accounting for the European Union
Author: Stephanie Searle, Nikita Pavlenko, Sammy El Takriti, and Kristine Bitnere
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: ICCT Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The European Commission’s proposal for a recast Renewable Energy Directive for the period 2021-2030 (RED II) includes a 6.8% target for renewable energy to be used in transport. This target can be met by advanced biofuels, renewable electricity, waste-based fossil fuels, and renewable fuels of non-biological origin (such as power-to-liquids). Food-based biofuels are not eligible to be used towards the transport target. The proposal defines a list of eligible feedstocks that can be used to produce advanced biofuels, including many types of materials often referred to as “wastes” and “residues,” such as municipal waste, wheat straw, forestry residues, and inedible animal fats. Alternative fuels must reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 70% to qualify, but the Commission’s proposed GHG calculation methodology does not include indirect effects. Indirect land use change (ILUC) has been estimated to substantially reduce and in some cases eliminate the GHG savings associated with biofuels made from food, such as corn ethanol and rapeseed biodiesel. The magnitude of indirect emissions that would be caused by eligible advanced biofuel feedstocks in the RED II proposal has been less well understood. This study estimates indirect emissions for many of these feedstocks and finds that, if indirect emissions accounting were included in the GHG calculation methodology for the RED II, several pathways currently listed as eligible are not likely to meet the 70% GHG reduction threshold. Similarly to food-based biofuels, some eligible feedstocks may not offer any GHG savings at all. This study also assesses the total GHG savings that could be achieved by the policy in 2030 if the transport target were changed to a GHG reduction target, similar to the target in the EU’s Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). This analysis shows that, for the same total amount of renewable energy delivered, a GHG target would drive greater GHG reductions compared to the energy target in the Commission’s proposal.

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81
Title: Annex 1: The IEA ETP Model and Scenarios
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: FUTURE CONCEPTS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference gives a short overview of the three ETP (Energy Technology Perspectives) scenarios each of which has different energy technology and policy pathways for a low carbon energy system in the period to 2060.

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82
Title: Annex 2: Bioenergy technologies
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference pinpoints the different characteristics between biomass feedstocks and fossil fuels and analyses the three technologies of biomass processing (fuel preparation, pretreatment, conversion) prior to conversion to energy in order to optimise the efficiency and the economics of the bioenergy pathway.

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83
Title: Annex 3: Bioenergy solutions suitable for immediate scale-up
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMETHANE Forum Area 2: BIOMASS RESOURCES
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference presents different bioenergy solutions that are suitable for immediate scale-up. Examples are: (i) biomethane from waste and residue feedstocks, (ii) waste and residue HVO in heavy-duty road freight and HEFA in aviation, (iii) higher ethanol blends and unblended ethanol in road transport, (iv) bioenergy based district heating networks in urban areas, (v) medium-scale biomass heating systems in commercial and public buildings, (vi) maximising the efficiency of bagasse co-generation in the sugar and ethanol industry, (vii) energy recovery from municipal waste solutions and (viii) the conversion of existing fossil fuel infrastructure for bioenergy use.

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84
Title: How2guide for Bioenergy: Roadmap Development and Implementation
Author: Simone Landolina, Irini Maltsoglou
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: IEA and FAO Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This How2Guide for Bioenergy (hereinafter the H2G.BIO) is designed to provide stakeholders from government, industry and other bioenergy-related institutions with the methodology and tools required to successfully plan and implement a roadmap for bioenergy at the national or regional level.
As a guide addressed to decision makers in developing, emerging and developed economies, the H2G.BIO does not attempt to cover every aspect of bioenergy conversion technology and deployment, or to be exhaustive in its reference to biomass resources and technologies at the country and regional levels. Rather, the aim is to provide a comprehensive list of steps and issues to be considered at each phase of bioenergy roadmapping and deployment. The guide draws on pre-existing work as well as on new evidence collected specifically for the production of this document.

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85
Title: The Future of Trucks: Implications for energy and the environment
Author: Adam Majoe
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: OECD/IEA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOCHEMICAL Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This report is composed of three main chapters:
• Chapter 1: The role of trucks in the energy sector aims to provide a concise primer on road freight transport, reviewing in detail the current contribution of road freight transport to energy demand, CO2 emissions and air pollution. It covers the historical drivers of freight activity, the main features of the global truck market, and the current policy landscape.
• Chapter 2: Opportunities to reduce energy and emissions growth aims to provide an overview of all relevant technological and system-wide measures to curb future oil demand and emissions growth from road freight transport. It reviews the status and prospects of alternative fuels, including natural gas, biofuels, electricity and hydrogen, and discusses the possible ways and extent to which the average fuel consumption of different types of road freight vehicles can be reduced. It also assesses the potential of systemic improvements, such as better logistics, for contributing to lower fuel demand growth from the sector.
• Chapter 3: Long-term outlook and policy insights first presents two alternative outlooks for road freight transport to mid-century through the analysis of two key scenarios. In the Reference Scenario, the outlook for future energy demand and CO2 emissions growth to 2050 is presented on the basis of all policies that are currently in place or have already been announced. This scenario is not a normative scenario that the IEA deems desirable or one that energy stakeholders should try to bring about. Based on a comparison of the two policy scenarios, Chapter 3 next provides a concise overview of the lessons learned and derives recommendations for policy makers. These policy insights explore options to reduce the road freight sector’s energy and emissions growth while improving the efficiency with which it can foster global economic activity and contribute to essential policy goals, such as energy security, climate change and air pollution.

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86
Title: What role is there for electrofuel technologies in European transport’s low carbon future?
Author: Chris Mallins
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Transport & Environment / Cerulogy Proposed by: Chris Mallins
Forum Area 1: POWER to X Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Electro or e-fuels (or power to liquid/gas) are electricity-based gaseous or liquid fuels which can be used in internal combustion engines. According to a new report by Cerulogy for T&E, e-fuels only have meaningful climate benefits if strict sustainability criteria are observed throughout the production process. The key factors determining the sustainability of e-fuels are the source of electricity (it must be renewable), the source of CO2 (ideally air capture) as well as impacts on land and water.

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87
Title: Technology Roadmap – Delivering Sustainable Bioenergy
Author: Fatih Birol
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: OECD/IEA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Bioenergy is a complex subject with many potential feedstocks, conversion processes and energy applications. It interacts strongly with the agriculture, forestry and waste management sectors, and its prospects are linked to the growth of a broader bioeconomy. Bioenergy can also sometimes be a controversial topic, and there is an increasing understanding that bioenergy can only expand if supplied and used in a sustainable manner.
This Roadmap re-examines the role of bioenergy in light of changes to the energy landscape over the past five years as well as recent experience in bioenergy policy, market development and regulation. It identifies the principal opportunities and the technical, policy and financial barriers to deployment, and it suggests a range of solutions to overcome them, outlining those which are available now and in the longer term. Many of these opportunities are highly suitable for emerging and developing economies experiencing rapid energy demand growth.
This publication is part of the new cycle of IEA Technology Roadmaps, a series that looks at the long term vision for clean energy technologies and offers guidance on the near-term priorities and key steps to accelerating technology development and deployment.
This Roadmap has been developed in in close co operation with the IEA Technology Collaboration Programme on Bioenergy and has benefited from extensive consultation with a wide range of international organisations and other stakeholders. We hope that this roadmap will play a valuable role by emphasising the potential for sustainable bioenergy and identifying the key opportunities and actions needed to fulfil its potential, as part of an enhanced international effort to provide new impetus to this important sector.

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88
Title: Sustainability criteria for biofuels made from land and non-land based feedstocks
Author: Ben Allen David Baldock Silvia Nanni Catherine Bowyer
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: IEEP Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The principal aim of this study is to define and articulate effective and workable sustainability criteria for the use of biomass in the production of energy, primarily in biofuels, in the post 2020 period. The main focus is on renewable transport fuel, and thus on biofuels and bio-liquids, but many of the criteria are applicable to the wider use of biomass for energy purposes. Certain criteria already apply for this purpose but they have not been re-examined to take account an increasing range of feedstocks and competing applications as well as evolving sustainability concerns. The report aims to increase understanding in this area as well as to propose potential ways forward.

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89
Title: Interest Representation in the European Union: A Case Study of the Directive on the Transition to Second Generation Biofuels
Author: Patrick CUMMINS-TRIPODI Marco GILOTTO Andrei MORARU
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: KU LEUVEN Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This paper identifies and analyses private actors’ and NGOs’ lobbying behaviour around Directive 2015/1513 on the transition to advanced biofuels (ILUC Directive). It is structured in two parts. Part I outlines the biofuels sector, the relevant EU legislation on biofuels, the main stakeholders, and the main issues of contention between them. Part II presents the theoretical framework, the methodology, and the main findings.
Data collection comprises qualitative (semi-structured interviews, document analysis) and quantitative (document analysis) methods. It is used to test a series of hypotheses derived from the literature and goes beyond them to paint a comprehensive picture of lobbying behaviour.
The main finding is that NGOs stand out as winners in comparison to industry players. Furthermore, this paper finds that specific interests favour access strategies and that their preferred target institution usually depends on the type of access goods they have to offer.

90
Title: Bioenergy and Bioeconomy – Carbon Value
Author: Skeer, J; Leme, R; Boshell, F
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2: AVIATION
Forum Area 3: MARITIME Forum Area 4:

In their recent report to the G20, IRENA and IEA have shown that bioenergy supply should expand to constitute about three-eighths of all renewable energy produced in the year 2050 (IEA/IRENA, 2017). But investment in bioenergy, particularly in plants to demonstrate the production of liquid biofuels from wood and grasses at scale, has been lagging behind what is needed. This is largely due to low oil prices and low carbon values in the market place, which make it difficult for liquid biofuels to compete with petroleum-based diesel and gasoline in the transport sector, although such biofuels are key to renewable energy supply for aviation, marine shipping, and heavy freight transport.
However, there are several technologies for advanced liquid biofuels which offer real potential to compete within the next two decades, assuming a substantial carbon value is put in place to meet the goals of Paris to keep global warming well below two degrees Celsius. Prospects for these advanced technologies, which make possible the use of a wide range of lignocellulosic resources – including rapidly growing grasses like energy cane and short rotation coppice wood from agroforestry – can be firmly supported by a realistic value of carbon in the marketplace. Advanced biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks do not appear cost effective at today’s oil prices and today’s market value for carbon. But both oil prices and carbon values are expected to increase over time. And ongoing RD&D efforts will bring down the costs of advanced biofuel technologies. So advanced liquid biofuels may well be extremely cost-competitive by the middle of the century – or sooner.

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91
Title: Accelerating the Energy Transition through Innovation
Author: Dolf Gielen, Deger Saygin, Francisco Boshell and Arina Anisie (IRENA) Citation
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This working paper aims to shed light on the conditions needed to nurture low-carbon technology innovation. By assessing current status and future needs for such technologies, it seeks to identify the elements of a flexible policy framework for innovation, broadly suitable to enable decarbonisation of the energy sector between now and 2050. With these aims in mind, the potential and cost of emissions-abatement through low-carbon technologies has been assessed in 13 different sectors of the energy system, spanning both power generation and the end-use sectors of energy demand. In addition, international initiatives promoting the required innovation have been mapped for each sector. Specific findings for each technology and sector, in turn, are translated into high-level policy recommendations to spur low-carbon technology innovation. The envisaged of cultivation of effective, case-specific innovation policies would do much to help countries meet international climate goals, such as those set forth in the 2015 Paris Agreement. This assessment builds on and expands the analysis prepared at the request of the G20 Presidency (IEA and IRENA, 2017), which looks at how the energy transition could occur and how it would result in deep decarbonisation by 2050. It also builds on earlier REmap work by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) that had a 2030 focus. The multifaceted “REmap” constitutes IRENA’s global roadmap to double the share of renewables in the energy mix by 2030, based on a detailed analysis of countries, regions and sectors focused on the period until 2030 and until 2050.

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92
Title: THE RENEWABLE ROUTE TO SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT
Author: Dolf Gielen, Deger Saygin and Nicholas Wagner (IRENA)
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This working paper draws on IRENA’s engagement with these experts and expands on the transport findings published in IRENA’s report REmap: Roadmap for a Renewable Energy Future, 2016 Edition (IRENA, 2016a).
REmap is a global renewable energy roadmap that explores the possibility of significantly increasing the share of renewables in the global energy system by 2030. The paper also proposes an action agenda that can contribute to increasing renewable energy use and the sustainability of the transport sector. This working paper explores pathways for renewable energy and proposes an action agenda to inform national policy makers and technology experts of the areas requiring further work to increase the uptake of renewables in transport sector. It builds on the important inputs of the Transport Action Team members and a growing body of work at IRENA beyond REmap, including: technology briefs that include the latest technology and cost information for emerging renewable energy and transport technologies. This working paper is the result of these broad engagements. It is based on quantitative, countrybased studies and multiple stakeholder webinars focused on technology solutions, such as emerging biofuel technologies and electric mobility (IRENA 2015a,b).

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93
Title: PERSPECTIVES FOR THE ENERGY TRANSITION
Author: International Energy Agency and International Renewable Energy Agency
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: OECD/IEA and IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOCHEMICAL Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Investment is the lifeblood of the global energy system. Individual decisions about how to direct capital to various energy projects – related to the collection, conversion, transport and consumption of energy resources – combine to shape global patterns of energy use and related emissions for decades to come. Government energy and climate policies seek to influence the scale and nature of investments across the economy, and long-term climate goals depend on their success. Understanding the energy investment landscape today and how it can evolve to meet decarbonisation goals are central elements of the energy transition. Around two-thirds of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions stem from energy production and use, which puts the energy sector at the core of efforts to combat climate change. This report presents the perspectives on a low-carbon energy sector of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).

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94
Title: BIOFUELS FOR AVIATION: TECHNOLOGY BRIEF
Author: Susan van Dyk and Jack Saddler (University of British Columbia), Francisco Boshell, Deger Saygin, Alessandra Salgado and Amr Seleem (IRENA)
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: AVIATION Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a technology briefing with respect to biofuels in aviation prepared by IRENA. The reference describes the four certified pathways to produce bio-jet and elaborates further on those options. More specifically, it states that currently the vast majority of biojet fuels are derived from oleochemical feedstocks and use the HEFA pathway. This will likely remain the main conversion route over the next five to 10 years, as methods using biomass, lignocellulosic and algal sources, and other advanced bio-jet technologies, are still maturing. Thermochemical technologies are the most likely to provide the large volumes of advanced bio-jet required, partly because the intermediates produced biochemical routes to bio-jet are worth considerably more in chemical, lubricant and cosmetic markets. The refence concludes with the view that without specific interventions and incentives directed towards bio-jet production and use, current policies in jurisdictions such as the U.S. will favour the production of renewable diesel over bio-jet.

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95
Title: BIOGAS FOR ROAD VEHICLES: TECHNOLOGY BRIEF
Author: Frank Scholwin, Johan Grope and Angela Clinkscales (Institute of Biogas, Waste Management and Energy), Francisco Boshell, Deger Saygin, Alessandra Salgado and Amr Seleem (IRENA)
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GASIFICATION Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a technology briefing with respect to biogas for road vehicles prepared by IRENA. The reference elaborates on process and technology status, costs, performance, sustainability and potential and barriers. It concludes by presenting a few best practice examples.

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96
Title: INNOVATION OUTLOOK ADVANCED LIQUID BIOFUELS
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: FUTURE CONCEPTS Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Innovation Outlook: Advanced Liquid Biofuels provides a global technology outlook for advanced biofuels between 2015 and 2045, specifically for liquid transport fuels for road, shipping and aviation use. It includes details of the technical and non-technical barriers to commercial deployment and the role of innovation in overcoming these barriers. It provides strategies to support advanced biofuels at all stages of the innovation chain. The potential for advanced biofuels is great but so are the challenges. A competitive advanced biofuels industry will depend on innovative technology and supply chains, market development and policy support.The purpose of the research underlying this report is to provide a global technology outlook for advanced biofuels in 2015-2045 specifically for liquid transport fuels for road, shipping and aviation use. This report concentrates on the role of innovation in stimulating advanced biofuels pathways that have not reached widespread commercialisation. The report is aimed at a wide range of stakeholders, including policy makers, investors, and project and technology developers worldwide. It aims to provide insight into potential technology and commercialisation developments and challenges, and the role that different stakeholders and IRENA can play in accelerating advanced biofuels pathway development and deployment. It complements IRENA’s Renewable Energy Technology Innovation Process, a guide developed byIRENA to assist countries, upon request, to choose assessment methods, identify key sectors and appropriate strategies, create co-ordinated policy portfolios, and define roles and responsibilities for implementation (IRENA, 2015). This report should also be read in conjunction with IRENA’s Renewable Energy Innovation Policy: Success Criteria and Strategies (IRENA, 2013a).

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97
Title: Electrofuels-what role in EU transport decarbonisation?
Author: Carlos Calvo Ambel
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Transport & Environment Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: POWER to X Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Electro or e-fuels (or power to liquid/gas) are electricity-based gaseous or liquid fuels which can be used in internal combustion engines. According to a new report by Cerulogy for T&E, e-fuels only have meaningful climate benefits if strict sustainability criteria are observed throughout the production process. The key factors determining the sustainability of e-fuels are the source of electricity (it must be renewable), the source of CO2 (ideally air capture) as well as impacts on land and water.

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98
Title: Renewable Energy Options for Shipping
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a technology brief that summarises the current status and applications of renewable energy solutions for shipping, along with the barriers and opportunities for further deployment. It provides recommendations to policy makers to promote realistic renewable energy solutions that can support efficiency and reduced emissions in the important, growing shipping sector.

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99
Title: ROAD TRANSPORT: THE COST OF RENEWABLE SOLUTIONS
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2013
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This report outlines the principal findings of the latest analysis by IRENA of options available for road transport. These include a range of biofuel, biogas and electrification options. These results for renewable solutions for road transport are preliminary findings in what is a fast moving and dynamic situation for advanced biofuels and electrification of transport. The analysis will be updated in 2013 and integrated into an assessment of the cost of renewable solutions for air and sea transport to provide a more complete picture of the costs for the transport sector. This will also include additional data that is likely to emerge over the coming year from the first-of-a-kind advanced biofuels plants that are just starting up, and from more widespread distribution of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and pure electric vehicles (EVs). The analysis summarised in this paper represents a static analysis of costs. Yet finding the optimal mix of renewable transport solutions in a country’s transport energy mix requires dynamic modelling, not just of the transportation system, but of the energy system as a whole.This analysis of the costs of renewable solutions for road transport – based on the latest available data and information – supports the transparent assessment of the role different renewable solutions for road transport can play in decarbonising the transport sector, improving energy security and promoting economic growth.

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100
Title: BIOENERGY FROM DEGRADED LAND IN AFRICA
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This report attempts to give a more precise estimate of the bioenergy potential from land pledged to the Bonn Challenge, concentrating on the pledges made so far in Africa. It poses the following research question: What is the sustainable potential of biomass for energy from restored degraded land pledged to the Bonn Challenge by African countries? It takes an overall view of the pledges in this light but considers Kenya and Rwanda in more detail because more data are available for these countries.The analysis shows that around 6 EJ of primary energy per year could in theory be sustainably extracted from SRWC cultivated on land pledged for restoration under the African Forest Landscape initiative. This amounts to about three-quarters of the land ultimately to be pledged. This proportion would account for 87% of TPES projected in 2050 for the 15 countries studied. However, this assumes bioenergy crops will be planted on the entire pledged area and that the most productive (highest yielding) land will be selected to plant such crops.

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101
Title: Biofuel Potential in Southeast Asia
Author: Jeffrey Skeer, Shunichi Nakada and Yasuko Inoue
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Substantial resource potential exists to sustainably expand supplies of liquid biofuels in Southeast Asia. Volumes of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuels can be expanded through more systematic collection of agricultural residues, as well as through planting of grasses and trees on land made available through more intensive cultivation of croplands and reduced waste and losses in the food chain. If these feedstocks were converted to advanced liquid biofuels using processes that are being demonstrated at commercial scale and becoming increasingly cost-competitive (IRENA, 2016b), advanced liquid biofuels could displace a significant share of petroleum-based transport fuel in the region. This paper focuses in particular on five countries in southeast Asia which are each both member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and member economies within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam.

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102
Title: SUPPLY AND DEMAND PROJECTIONS
Author: Shunichi Nakada (IRENA), Deger Saygin (IRENA) and Dolf Gielen (IRENA).
Publication Year: 2014
OPEN
Source: International Renewable Energy Agency – IRENA Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The objective of this working paper is not to add yet another data input to this already complicated prognosis, bioenrgy. Rather, it addresses itself to a number of crucial questions in view of biomass’ large demand potential in 2030 (IRENA, 2014a), as well as the uncertainties concerning supply in a sustainable, affordable way and how this might be ensured. This working paper starts by describing the methodology IRENA applied to estimate the biomass supply potential and costs (Section 2). It continues by presenting the current bioenergy market situation (Section 3). Section 4 compares the total biomass demand estimates according to REmap 2030 with these supply estimates. Section 5 discusses the uncertainties in realising the demand and biomass supply growth estimates between now and 2030. Section 6 discusses the biomass supply cost estimates. Section 7 outlines the sustainability issues around biomass. In view of the uncertainties in bioenergy growth and sustainability, Sections 8 and 9 identify the technology options and hedging strategies, as well as policy needs, needed to strengthen bioenergy use and supply growth. The working paper concludes with Section 10, which outlines the next steps for improving expanding the bioenergy work of IRENA based on the findings of this paper.

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103
Title: Electric vehicle life cycle analysis and raw material availability
Author: Yoann Le Petit
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Transport & Environment Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This briefing addresses two of the criticisms against electric vehicles (EV), their environmental impact on a lifecycle basis; and the availability and use of critical metals. It compares the performance of EVs based upon charging using different electricity mixes across Europe to a conventional diesel vehicle, and demonstrates that a shift delivers climate benefits today, even in countries with the highest grid carbon intensity. Low grid carbon intensity now and in the future delivers substantial climate benefits.
The second part of this briefing looks at the demand and availability of critical raw materials (such as lithium, cobalt, nickel, graphite, and rare earths) used in batteries and electric motors. There can be expected to be a massive increase in demand arising from a growth in electric vehicles. The briefing considers current and projected supply and demand, and concludes that physical shortages of such materials are unlikely. However, the extraction of these metals needs to be certified against high social and environmental standards. In the long term, re-use, recycling, and progressive substitution of these materials should generalise.

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104
Title: CO2-Based Synthetic Fuel: Assessment of Potential European Capacity and Environmental Performance
Author: Adam Christensen, Chelsea Petrenko
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: ICCT Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study aims to improve our understanding of the potential contribution that CO2-based synthetic fuels could make towards the European Union’s (EU) climate mitigation goals. We project potential volumes of these fuels that could be produced in EU Member States based on a financial analysis and deployment model, taking into account technology readiness, potential subsidies or other policy support, and expected changes in renewable electricity prices. We then assess expected impacts of CO2-based synthetic fuel production on electricity generation and consumption in the EU. We estimate the GHG intensity of CO2-based synthetic fuels, including both direct emissions from synthesizing the fuels and indirect emissions resulting from increased demand for electricity from the grid. Lastly, we estimate the total GHG reductions that could potentially be achieved by CO2-based synthetic fuels across the EU, compared to climate goals.

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105
Title: Life Cycle Analysis of the Climate Impact of Electric Vehicles
Author: Dr. Maarten Messagie – Vrije Universiteit Brussel - research group MOBI
Publication Year:
OPEN
Source: Transport & Environment Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a methodology, commonly used for the environmental assessment of vehicle technologies (or any other product/system). LCA studies consider, all the environmentally significant processes throughout the life cycle of vehicles, from raw material extraction, production of components, assembly, transport, vehicle use to the end-of-life treatment. Since all the life stages are covered from a cradle to grave perspective, LCA prevents problem shifting. However, the key question is how to make robust policy decisions when vehicle-LCA literature consists sometimes of divergent results. To help the debate, the document contains key findings from literature on vehicle-LCA and specific calculations of scenarios in which the influence of the carbon footprint on the performance of electric vehicles in Europe is discussed.

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106
Title: Crude tall oil low ILUC risk assessment
Author: Daan Peters, Viktorija Stojcheva
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Ecofys Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This is an update of the initial 2013 report prepared by Ecofys for UPM to assess whether CTO can be regarded as a residue and whether the feedstock would be low ILUC risk, meaning its use for biofuels would not lead to displacement effects of existing other uses. The important change since the previous report is that biofuel production at UPM has started, so any effects of CTO usage for biofuels has on the CTO market would be visible.

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107
Title: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION A SUSTAINABLE, LOW COST, RELIABLE AND WIN WIN BECCS SOLUTION
Author: David Bolzonella, Stenano Bozzeto, Bruce Dale, Paolo Foglia, Piero Gattoni, Paolo Inglese, Biagio Pecorino, Fabrizio Sibilla, Ezio Veggia, Lorenzo Maggioni, Guido Bezzi
Publication Year:
OPEN
Source: CIB Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This article proposes an inexpensive, widely-proven and widely-applicable means of reversing climate change using bioenergy and associated carbon capture and storage. We propose a systemic approach to agriculture, where we obtain food and feed and energy/biomaterials from the same hectare of land already cultivated or set aside. We achieve this target via a combination of already existing and new farming techniques and while we photosynthesize more carbon in the crops we
sequestrate CO2 from the atmosphere and we store it in the soil, making it richer in organic matter and thus more fertile. We call these techniques biogasdoneright® since the whole farm activity is designed around the anaerobic digester (AD). The term “biogasdoneright®” is also used to describe a technological platform that combines Anaerobic Digestion (AD) technologies and other Industrial and Agricultural practices.

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108
Title: Climate solutions for EU industry: interaction between electrification, CO2 use and CO2 storage
Author: Ruta Malinauskaite
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Zero Emission Platform (ZEP) Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The capture of carbon emissions from Energy-Intensive Industries (EIIs) for utilisation in new products is gaining traction as a potential cost-effective way of addressing industrial carbon emissions in Europe. Collectively, these processes are known as CCU. The extent to which a CCU process can contribute towards climate change mitigation depends on the lifecycle of the product and whether and when the captured CO2 is released into atmosphere.
Furthermore, assessment of different types of CCU must be measured against a robust and transparent counterfactual. This report concludes that treating all forms of CCU as de facto CO2 abatement could have serious detrimental impacts on efforts to reduce emissions, and that each application of CCU must be comprehensively assessed on its ability to contribute to long-term climate mitigation.Building on analysis of the ‘Indicative Sink Factor’ (ISF) of different types of CCU, the report also analyses the potential market size for different CCU products and processes in Europe. The analysis suggests that the emerging markets for CO2 (re)use will only be able to address a small proportion of the emissions that will need to be abated to meet climate targets under EU legislation and the Paris Agreement.Taking into account the challenges around electrification and the limited scalability of CCU, it can be concluded that these solutions must be combined with making available large-scale permanent storage for captured CO2 to meet the required level of reductions, thus enabling the long-term sustainability of these key industries in a low carbon Europe. Given the critical importance of CCS in enabling decarbonisation of Europe’s EIIs, this paper recommends that EU policy focuses on the rapid deployment of CO2 transport and storage infrastructure to support these important sectors. A failure to provide such enabling infrastructure in the short term will increase CO2 liability risk and undermine investments in jobs and economic activity.

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109
Title: WWF-Studie 2016: Auf der Ölspur – Berechnungen zu einer palmölfreieren Welt
Author: Ilka Petersen, Jenny Walther-Thoss
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: WWF Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a WWF study on palm oil with emphasis on the situation particularly in Germany. It presents the advantages of palm oil that are difficult to beat and the criticism that palm oil receives. The study includes some statistical data on the production and consumption of palm oil. Alternatives/substitution options are presented and analyzed on the basis of ecological challenges that will appear (surface requirements, GHG emissions, biodiversity) through substitution of palm oil by other types of vegetable oils. The study clearly states that no palm oil is not an option either and concludes with a list of recommendations to consumers.

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110
Title: ∅ILUC ETHANOL
Author: JAMES COGAN
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a presentation on ethanol and iLUC prepared by Ethanol Europe Renewables.

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111
Title: Assessing the case for sequential cropping to produce low ILUC risk biomethane
Author: Daan Peters, Matthias Spöttle, Ann-Kathrin Kühner, Masoud Zabeti
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Ecofys Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a presentation of the study on low iLUC risk biomethane produced from sequential cropping. It illustrates the first positive observations when sequential cropping is implemented and urges for further research into the scalability of sequential cropping, especially in northern Europe.

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112
Title: Assessing the case for sequential cropping to produce low ILUC risk biomethane
Author: Daan Peters, Masoud Zabeti, Ann-Kathrin Kühner and Matthias Spöttle (Ecofys), Wopke van der Werf and Tjeerd Jan Stomph (WUR)
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: CIB, Italian Biogas Council, Ecofys Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

In this report Ecofys assesses for the Italian Biogas Council whether the introduction of a sequential cropping scheme for maize silage, triticale silage and soybean cultivation leads to additional, low ILUC risk biomass compared to the previous ‘summer crop only’ situation, in which the land was fallow during winter time. Sequential cropping is a cultivation system in which a summer crop and a different winter cover crop are being produced on the same plot of land in the same year. We also assess whether the more intense use of farmland is possible without negative impacts on soil, water and on-farm biodiversity and whether biomethane produced from the sequential cropping system meets the minimum required GHG threshold for transport biofuels. We focus our assessment on Palazzetto farm in the Po-valley in northern Italy, which introduced sequential cropping in 2012/13. Both before and after the change to sequential cropping, the farm produces animal feed and biogas from a mix of crops and manure, feeding the digestate, a nutrients-rich residue, back to the fields.

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113
Title: Methodologies for the identification and certification of Low ILUC risk biofuels
Author: Daan Peters, Matthias Spöttle, Thomas Haehl, Ann-Kathrin Kühner and Maarten Guijpers (Ecofys), Tjeerd Jan Stomph and Wopke van der Werf (WUR) and Martin Grass (Intertek)
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Ecofys, WUR, Intertek Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

In this report, Ecofys proposes two methodologies to identify and demonstrate low ILUC risk biofuel feedstock production through the application of yield increase or unused land. The yield increase methodology is based on productivity increases of single target crops but also includes the possibility to apply multi-cropping systems. The implementation and certification of ILUC mitigation measures will come at a financial cost. On the other hand, will resulting additional biomass production also lead to increased revenues. The precise costs and revenues depends on how much additional biomass is produced and what the required investments were to achieve this, which can differ from case to case. In the end, it will be up to economic operators to assess whether a business case exists to pursue low ILUC risk certification.

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114
Title: Biofuels and food security
Author: Carlo Hamelinck
Publication Year: 2013
OPEN
Source: ePURE, Ecofys Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This comprehensive overview of the main aspects of the interrelation between food and biofuels synthesizes previous research on the subject. It addresses the causality between biofuels production, global crop commodity prices and eventual implications for food security, especially in poor regions and for poor households. This overview attempts to bring together the relevant economic forces influencing global (and local) food prices, many of which are absent in other analyses. Thus, it addresses low stock level impacts on price volatility, how cheap food encourages waste, to what extent global prices transmit to local prices across regions, and why high prices encourage local agricultural investment and food security.

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115
Title: Grow but cherish your environment
Author:
Publication Year: 2014
OPEN
Source: The Economist Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is an Economist article on the palm oil in west Africa. It describes the controversial topic of palm oil production and how this has affected Malaysia, Indonesia and Africa.

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116
Title: Waste and residues availability for biofuel production
Author: Detlef Evers
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: MVaK Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a presentation dealing with waste and residues availability for biofuel production. It focuses primarily on Germany and EU and presents the potential liquid biofuels produced in Germany and in EU from waste and residues along with the resulting GHG reduction of road transport emissions per year.

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117
Title: Impartial Analysis for Policy Making
Author: The Institute for Impact Assessment and Scientific Evaluation of Policy and Legislation
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: IAI Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The Proposal for a Directive on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources (recast) is part of an interdependent package of energy legislation. This IAI study scrutinises the Impact Assessments on renewable energy and bioenergy accompanying that proposal, and their coherence with the proposal in the context of the full legislative package. A number of significant shortcomings in the evidence have been identified, which severely weaken the foundation for this part of the EU’s energy policy. The study refers to the other pieces of energy legislation and their Impact Assessments where directly relevant. It builds on the previous IAI study scrutinising the Inception Impact Assessment on renewable energy1. In particular, this current study identifies shortcomings and inconsistencies in the presented evidence and, where sufficient evidence is available, investigates further to offer alternative approaches.

118
Title: CROPS OF THE BIOFRONTIER: IN SEARCH OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY CROPPING
Author: Stephanie Searle, Chelsea Petrenko, Ella Baz, Chris Malins
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: ICCT Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

With this research, we seek to identify and describe the opportunity for sustainable energy cropping through fieldwork and literature review, including case studies of early energy crop projects in Europe. Two case studies, supported by fieldwork, consider cropping on land that is marginal for agriculture, and one of the cases also looks at the potential for double cropping. The third case study, based on literature review, considers the environmental benefits that could be achieved through the wet cultivation of peatlands for biomass in Europe. These case studies augment a sparse literature base on the environmental risks and benefits of an emerging and rapidly evolving industry. There is reason to believe that energy crops could potentially deliver environmental benefits when grown on previously disturbed, abandoned agricultural land. While literature studies comparing biodiversity and carbon stocks in energy crop plantations to marginal land are scant, it is clear that in many cases perennial energy crops can improve agricultural land previously used for annual row crops and may offer similar environmental benefits to existing unmanaged grassland. The literature suggests that growing perennial energy crops may rehabilitate agricultural land faster than simple
abandonment.

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119
Title: Promoting renewable energy sources in the EU after 2020
Author: Alex Benjamin Wilson
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Parliament Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: FUTURE CONCEPTS Forum Area 2: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The Briefing on the topic of promoting renewable energy sources in the EU after 2020 consists of an overview of the background, the Commission proposal itself and the stakeholders’ views on the proposed Directive.

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120
Title: Understanding options for ILUC mitigation
Author: Sammy El Takriti, Chris Malins, and Stephanie Searle
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: ICCT Proposed by: Chris Mallins
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This paper surveys the existing literature on methodologies related to the certification of low ILUC biofuel projects through different measures. It also assesses the potential challenges, risks, and loopholes that could arise from the use of these methodologies. We find that several methodologies lack detailed requirements on “additionality,” which significantly diminishes the credibility of those methodologies and reveals potential loopholes in the proposed measures to avoid ILUC. Additionality is the demonstration that a project reduces GHG emissions below those that would have occurred in a baseline scenario (i.e., in the absence of that project). In the case of biofuels, demonstrating additionality means demonstrating that feedstock production or use is really additional to what would have happened in a baseline scenario without biofuel demand. We conclude that the concept of low indirect impact biofuels, as described in the analyzed methodologies, is still in its infancy stage, and would require substantial supplementary requirements and risk analyses if it were to be included in a new European legislation as an additional sustainability criterion for the production of biofuels and bioenergy post-2020. This paper examines the concept of low indirect impact biofuels, how it is addressed in European legislation, and the existing literature on how it can be implemented and certified through different regional and local measures. We also assess the potential challenges, risks, and loopholes that could arise from the certification of low indirect impact biofuels. The emphasis here is on biofuels feedstock; however, the discussion would be similar for feedstock used for bioenergy or biomaterials in general.

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121
Title: Cattle pastures and other degraded lands become new oil palm plantations
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Phys.org - News and Articles on Science and Technology Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference refers to a newly published study that offers the first regional look at land being converted to palm oil plantations in Latin America. The article informs that most palm oil plantations in Latin America are being established on previously cleared lands, particularly cattle pastures. The study also shows that most palm oil produced in Latin America is consumed in the region, instead of being exported to distant markets like Europe, as there is a strong internal demand for palm oil in the region. The study suggests that this is in part driven by the surge of recent domestic biofuel targets.

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122
Title: The Gallagher Review of the indirect effects of biofuels production
Author: Ed Gallagner
Publication Year: 2008
OPEN
Source: Renewable Fuels Energy Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Biofuels have been proposed as a solution to several pressing global concerns: energy security, climate change and rural development. This has led to generous subsidies in order to stimulate supply. In 2003, against a backdrop of grain mountains and payments to farmers for set-aside land, the European Union agreed the Biofuels Directive. Under this directive, member states agreed to set indicative targets for biofuels use and promote their uptake. Many environmental groups hailed a new revolution in green motoring.This review examines evidence of the indirect effects of increasing demand for biofuels and makes recommendations that provide a direction for policy to deliver sustainable biofuels into the UK and EU transport fuels market. The review has been undertaken by the Renewable Fuels Agency (RFA)2 at the request of the UK Government. The RFA is an independent non-departmental public body with the aim to help the UK to achieve its renewable transport fuel targets sustainably by administering the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation effectively and efficiently and by reporting to the Secretary of State on its effects. The views expressed in this document are solely those of the RFA.

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123
Title: Long-term effects of crop rotation, manure and mineral fertilisationon carbon sequestration and soil fertility
Author: Loretta Triberti, Anna Nastri, Guido Baldoni
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: Elsevier Ltd. Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOCHEMICAL Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Carbon sequestration, recently advocated to mitigate climate change, needs a thorough knowledge ofthe dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC), whose study requires long-term experiments. A field trialstarted in 1967 is still in progress in the Southeast Po valley (Italy). It compares a 9-year rotation(corn–wheat–corn–wheat–corn–wheat–alfalfa–alfalfa–alfalfa), two 2-year successions (corn–wheat andsugarbeet–wheat), continuous corn and continuous wheat. During the first 18 years (up to 1984) wheatcrops were always followed by catch crops of silage corn. Within each rotation, three rates of cattlemanure have been factorially combined with three mineral NP rates. In 1984 the highest manure appli-cation was stopped. Wheat straw and corn stalks have always been removed from the field. Since 1972 upto now every year we have determined the organic C and total N contents in soil samples collected from0.40-m depth. During the first 18 years (in the presence of the catch crop) SOC exponentially declined,probably as a consequence of the intensification of tillage depth and crop succession with respect to theprevious conventional agriculture. The intensification regarded ploughing, which became deeper, thenumber of cropped species that in most treatments was reduced, and mineral N application, which, onaverage, increased. The drop was faster in the sugarbeet–wheat succession than in the 9-yr rotation andcontinuous wheat. After 1985, without the catch crop, SOC linearly increased, faster in the 9-yr rota-tion and continuous wheat than in sugarbeet–wheat. The results can be ascribed to the amount and C/Nratio of debris remaining in the field after each crop, even after having taken away wheat straw andcorn stalks. The debris consisted of sugarbeet tops, with a low C/N ratio, and of roots and basal culms ofthe two cereal crops with higher C/N ratio. Mineral fertilizers significantly increased SOC, probably forthe greater amount of cereal roots and sugarbeet tops in more fertilized plots. The influence of manurewas less intense, but its benefits lasted longer than 18 years after its interruption. Soil N content wasmore related to accumulated organic matter than to mineral N fertilisation. In conclusion the highest Csequestration was obtained with manure addition, with the highest rate of mineral fertilizers, and in therotation containing the alfalfa ley. The effects of these factors were not additive.

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124
Title: SUSTAINABLE AND INCLUSIVE PALM OIL SUPPLY CHAINS NEED MORE THAN TRACEABILITY
Author: no author
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Solidaridad Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is an article that touches on the issue of traceability of palm oil supply chains. The author points out that in order to create a truly sustainable palm sector, industries and NGOs active in the palm oil supply chains need to shift their focus from segregated and traceable supply chains to a more inclusive supply chain with room for improvements on the ground. Through an example, she illustrates the two downsides of traceability and calls for adopting a different approach which continues to reward suppliers of traceable, segregated sustainable palm oil material, but with the important condition that the supply chains should include all key stakeholders, even independent smallholders.

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125
Title: Improving the accounting of renewable electricity in transport within the new EU Renewable Energy Directive
Author: Christof Timpe Dominik Seebach Joß Bracker Peter Kasten
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Oeko Institute Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This policy paper assesses whether the accounting rules for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) proposed in the RED II are consistent and whether they create appropriate incentives for the increased use of low-carbon energy in the transport sector. As starting points, Chapter 2 gives an overview of the situation of renewable energy in the EU electricity market and Chapter 3 summarises the most important effects of an intensified interplay of the transport and electricity sectors. Chapter 4 analyses the proposed accounting mechanisms for renewable electricity within the blending obligation on fuel suppliers. Chapter 5 assesses the role of renewable electricity for transport in the context of the overall Union target for renewable energy. A summary of the recommendations from the individual chapters is provided in Chapter 6.

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126
Title: An outline of sustainability criteria for synthetic fuels used in transport
Author: Joß Bracker With contributions from Christof Timpe
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Oeko Institute Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2: POWER to X
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Generally, electricity-based synthetic fuels are fuels based on hydrogen and hydrocarbons, which can be produced by electricity. Hydrogen produced by electricity (Power-to-Gas) can serve as a transport fuel in fuel cell-based vehicles without further processing. With the input of CO2 (e.g. from biogas plants), hydrogen can be synthesised and refined to different liquid transport fuels (Power to-Liquid) that have a higher energy density than pure hydrogen and a broader range of possible applications. This policy paper sets out the most important issues which should be addressed by such criteria and outlines possible criteria approaches. For the development of a concrete criteria set, a much more thorough assessment of the relevant issues is necessary than it is possible in this short paper. The analysis in this paper concentrates on the sustainability aspects of the production of liquid synthetic fuels (methanol, liquid hydrocarbons), with most arguments also applying to hydrogen.

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127
Title: MHPS Europe recommendations on the implications of the ongoing Renewable Energy Directive recast for the deployment of Power-to-X Technologies
Author:
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: MHPS Europe Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: POWER to X Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is the position paper of MHPS Europe on RED II for the deployment of Power-to-X technologies. MHPS Europe asks for (i) definitions that do not restrict the use of different feedstocks and technology paths, (ii) the development of a robust Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology for the calculation of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings of these novel fuels which overcomes regulatory disparities in the different markets, (iii) A binding share of renewable energy supplied for final consumption in the transport sector, with the possibility to use other measures targeting volumes, energy content or GHG emission savings to ensure the achievement of that share, (iv) allowing the use of Guarantees of Origin (GoO) and Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs), including through concepts such as “virtual power plants” which can provide real-time monitoring and validation of multiple producers and consumers, while avoiding double counting.

128
Title: Bas Eickhout, Green MEP: Sustainability criteria will distinguish ‘good’ and ‘bad’ biofuels
Author: Sarantis Michalopoulos
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: EURACTIV Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is an interview of Bas Eickhout, a Dutch MEP of the Group of the Greens/European Free Alliance in the European Parliament. He is the rapporteur for the Parliament’s ENVI committee’s draft report on the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II). Mr. Eickhout elaborates on his approach towards the EC’s Renewable Energy Directive II proposal and on his view that there must be a differentiation among first-generation biofuels. He shares his opinion on the EU’s reluctance to adopt electric cars and comments on the impact of the German election on the case considering that the Greens will not be part of the coalition. Mr. Eickhout also comments on the criticism the Commission’s impact assessment process has received and provides an answer to the question whether he is convinced about the sustainability of this approach.

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129
Title: Proposal for a DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
Author: General Secretariat of the Council
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is the Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, as adopted by the General Secretariat of the Council.

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130
Title: EU winter package
Author: George Ogleby
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Edie.net Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

As the European Commission (EC) today (30 November) unveils its energy winter package aimed at helping to reduce carbon emissions by 40% by 2030, edie analyses the major talking points of the document’s key proposals.The document sets out the EU’s planned transition to an energy efficient and low-carbon economy
The EC’s 1,000 page document is a series of legislative proposals designed to achieve three objectives; putting energy efficiency first, achieving global leadership in renewable energy and providing a fair deal for consumers. The 10-year package sought to underpin commitments made in the Paris Agreement, where the EU pledged to cut emissions by 40% on 1990 levels by 2030. Proposals include plans to increase energy efficiency levels by 30% by 2030, accelerate clean energy innovation, renovate Europe’s buildings and step-up the coal phase-out.
In the build-up to the document’s release, a host of multi-sector businesses warned that the EC’s current proposals were insufficiently ambitious to deliver policy clarity. Today’s document, which still faces a lengthy review by the European Parliament and member states, has been met with varied response from industry experts.

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131
Title: Renewable ethanol drives EU decarbonisation
Author: Craig Winneker
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: ePURE Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOCHEMICAL Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a 2-slides presentation of ePURE that addresses the threat imposed by the revised Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) to phase out ethanol, which is one of the EU’s best options for reducing greenhouse gases and decarbonizing transport.

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132
Title: ETIP Bioenergy position on the European Commission proposal for a revised Renewable Energy Directive (RED II)
Author: ETIP Bioenergy
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Technology and Innovation Platform (ETIP) Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The European Technology and Innovation Platform (ETIP) Bioenergy aims to contribute to the development of sustainable, cost-competitive world-class bioenergy value chains and the creation of a healthy bioenergy industry in the European Union, through a process of guidance, prioritisation and promotion of research, technology development and demonstration. Bioenergy encompasses a wide range of value chains, from many feedstock types and conversion technologies to essentially all possible energy carriers. Technological and commercial maturity differs between these chains, which mean that effective policy instruments will need to take account of these differences. For example, new innovative technologies for biofuels (biofuels made from feedstocks specified in RED Annex IX, part A) will require a different type of support than technologies commercially available at scale for e.g. biofuels made from Annex IX, part B. This will be a key challenge for the RED II and its implementation in member states.
In various responses from a broad range of parties, much has already been said and discussed about the RED II proposal, part of the European Commission’s Winter Package published in November 2016. In our response, we focus on the key elements on which ETIP bioenergy has a specific position, which is in innovation and technology development for sustainable energy applications of biomass.

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133
Title: EU bioenergy policy: Ensuring that the provisions on bioenergy in the recast EU Renewable Energy Directive deliver genuine climate benefits
Author: Alex Mason
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: WWF Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a WWF briefing paper on EU bioenergy policy. It summarises the evidence on the impacts of various types of EU bioenergy use, focusing on the climate aspects. It then assesses the policy proposals put forward by the European Commission and considers what changes to those may be necessary to ensure that bioenergy used in the EU is genuinely sustainable from an ecological, social and climate perspective. The paper does not attempt to cover the entire global biomass sector (much of which consists of traditional subsistence fuelwood in developing countries) and is without prejudice to whatever bioenergy policies may be appropriate in third countries. Instead it considers the specific question of what types of bioenergy should actively be incentivised, for example through subsidies, blending mandates or other policy incentives permitted under EU law.

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134
Title: THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S RENEWABLE ENERGY PROPOSAL FOR 2030
Author: ICCT
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: ICCT Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: FUTURE CONCEPTS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a summary of the European Commission’s Renewable Energy Proposal for 2030 by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT).

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135
Title: EBB position on RED II – 2020-30 EU Renewables in Transport
Author: EBB
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Biodesiel Board (EBB) Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: FUTURE CONCEPTS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This Position Paper provides the detailed position and suggestions of the EU biodiesel industry to unlock the potential of this new, EU-based, renewable source of transport energy. In the frame of the upcoming negotiations on the post-2020 EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED II), the position paper lists the points that are of crucial importance, such as policy continuity, ambitious targets, sustainability criteria, realistic deployment of advanced biofuels, reduction of GHG emissions, deployment of higher biodiesel blends and downside in the EU economy, jobs and agriculture as a result of unreasoned phase-out of the EU biodiesel sector.

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136
Title: FuelsEurope-Position Paper Renewable Energy Directive II
Author: Daniel Leuckx
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: FuelsEurope Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Position paper of FuelsEurope on the Renewable Energy Directive II. FuelsEurope welcomes the Commission’s proposal on the Renewable Energy Directive II (RED II) and recognises that the deployment of renewable energy is one of the main measures to tackle security of supply and climate change. FuelsEurope considers that transport can play an important role in achieving the EU-wide renewable energy target of at least 27% renewables in 2030. Homogeneous policy across the EU will be key in creating conditions that remain predictable and stable over the long term and that prevent fragmentation of the EU single energy market.

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137
Title: LSB position paper EP AMENDMENTS
Author:
Publication Year:
OPEN
Source: LSB Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference consists of the explicit position of the Leaders of Sustainable Biofuels (LSB) on the amendments to the recast of the Renewables Energy Directive (RED II) proposed by ENVI.

138
Title: LSB position paper European Parliament September 2017
Author: Marko Janhunen
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: LSB Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is the position paper of the Leaders of Sustainable Biofuels (LSB) on the recast of the Renewables Energy Directive (RED II). LSB (i) urges the European Parliament to adopt a dedicated binding target for advanced biofuels produced from Annex IX part A feedstocks, (ii) sees a clear need for separate Annex IX part A and part B in order to support investments in new technologies (Part A), (iii) urges the European Parliament to promote long-term policy stability by not engaging in discussions on the feedstock list based on Annex IX part A, (iv) advises that including the accounting of indirect emissions should not be legally binding as it is based on immature scientific assumptions, and (v) claims that cascading and respecting the waste hierarchy are principles to which Member States should adhere to as much as possible. However, in the case of fighting transport emissions strict legal application of these principles could be counterproductive.

139
Title: How to make the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) work for renewable electricity in transport
Author: Laura Buffet
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Transport & Environment Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

In November 2016 the Commission presented its new proposal for a Renewable Energy Directive in the 2021-2030 period. The main elements of the proposal on transport are to reduce the cap on food and feed-based biofuels to 3.8% in 2030 and to establish a mandate on fuel suppliers, requiring them to blend 6.8% of advanced fuels by 2030 (T&E’s position on biofuels in the RED can be found here).
Although the Commission recognises the key role of renewable electricity, the RED II proposal – just like the RED I legislation currently in force – does little to effectively stimulate the use of renewable electricity in transport. Moreover it does not ensure that new renewable electricity capacity is built to fulfil the increased transport electricity demand. This briefing summarises how the REDII could accelerate the use of renewable electricity in transport.

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140
Title: The ‘Power-to-liquids’ Trap
Author: Ana Serdoner, Keith Whiriskey
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Bellona Europa Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: POWER to X Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reinvention of kerosene for the outdated fossil lamps has taken its modern form. The most recent alternative to the already existing, efficient climate mitigation solutions are synthetic fossil fuels produced by using renewable energy sources. The purpose of this report is to debunk the myths of that so-called climate change mitigation pathway and the promises it claims. Finally, it aims to develop recommndations on how to avoid the pitfalls of Power to Liquids. This report explores: a) current impact assessments of the synthetic fossil fuel production, b) potential pitfalls of the technology related to the current policy framework, c) recommendations for the alternative paths of climate mitigation.

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141
Title: 2016 legislative proposal for the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive for advanced biofuels
Author: Ruta Baltause
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: DG Energy, European Commission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a presentation on the recast of the RED II for advanced biofuels. It outlines the Commission’s strategy on low emission mobility on biofuels, as well as the objectives of the RED II. The reference also illustrates the difference between RES-T target and proposed obligation and elaborates further on the latter.

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142
Title: Renewable energy deployment in the European Union
Author: Banja M, Monforti-Ferrario F, Bódis K, Jäger-Waldau A, Taylor N, Dallemand JF, Scarlat N
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: BIOMASS RESOURCES Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The report presents an overview of renewable energy development and progress expected by 2020, as forecasted in the EU Member States’ reporting under the Renewable Energy Directive and projected in the EU Reference 2016 and EUCO27 scenarios. The report compares the progress achieved between 2005 and 2015, as reported by EU Member States in their progress reports and the Eurostat SHARES Tool, with the expected results as set out in their national renewable energy action plans. The report goes on to describe in detail each Member State’s overall contribution to the development of renewable energy since 2005. The findings draw on the Member States’ reporting under the Renewable Energy Directive, the progress each country has made in the use of each renewable energy source and the contribution of renewable energy in each Member State to the heating/cooling, electricity and transport sectors. Findings are summarised in standardised tables and graphs, enabling quick comparison between different countries and for the EU as a whole.

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143
Title: Co-production of synthetic fuels and district heat from biomass residues, carbon dioxide and electricity: Performance and cost analysis
Author: Ilkka Hannula
Publication Year: 2015
OPEN
Source: Elsevier Ltd. Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: POWER to X Forum Area 2: GASIFICATION
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Large-scale systems suitable for the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), methanol or gasoline (MTG) are examined using a self-consistent design, simulation and cost analysis framework. Three basic production routes are considered: (1) production from biomass via gasification; (2) from carbon dioxide and electricity via water electrolysis; (3) from biomass and electricity via hybrid process combining elements from routes (1) and (2). Process designs are developed based on technologies that are either commercially available or successfully demonstrated at precommercial scale. The prospective economics of future facilities coproducing fuels and district heat are evaluated from the perspective of a synthetic fuel producer. The levelised production costs range from 18e37 V/GJ for natural gas, 21e40 V/GJ for methanol and 23e48 V/GJ for gasoline, depending on the production route. For a given end-product, the lowest costs are associated with thermochemical plant configurations, followed by hybrid and electrochemical plants.

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144
Title: Hydrogen enhancement potential of synthetic biofuels manufacture in the European context: A techno-economic assessment
Author: Ilkka Hannula
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: Elsevier Ltd. Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GASIFICATION Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

Potential to increase biofuels output from a gasification-based biorefinery using external hydrogen supply (enhancement) was investigated. Up to 2.6 or 3.1-fold increase in biofuel output could be attained for gasoline or methane production over reference plant configurations, respectively. Such enhanced process designs become economically attractive over non-enhanced designs when the average cost of low-carbon hydrogen falls below 2.2e2.8 V/kg, depending on the process configuration. If all sustainably available wastes and residues in the European Union (197 Mt/a) were collected and converted only to biofuels, using maximal hydrogen enhancement, the daily production would amount to 1.8e2.8 million oil equivalent barrels. This total supply of hydrogen enhanced biofuels could displace up to 41e63 per cent of the EU (European Union)’s road transport fuel demand in 2030, again depending on the choice of process design.

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145
Title: The Potential for electrofuels Production in sweden Utilizing Fossil and Biogenic cO2 Point sources
Author: Julia Hansson, Roman Hackl, Maria Taljegard, Selma Brynolf and Maria Grahn
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Frontiers in Energy Research Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: POWER to X Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This paper maps, categorizes, and quantifies all major point sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial and combustion processes in Sweden. The paper also estimates the Swedish technical potential for electrofuels (power-to-gas/fuels) based on carbon capture and utilization. With our bottom-up approach using European databases, we find that Sweden emits approximately 50 million metric tons of CO2 per year from different types of point sources, with 65% (or about 32 million tons) from biogenic sources. The major sources are the pulp and paper industry (46%), heat and power production (23%), and waste treatment and ncineration (8%). Most of the CO2 is emitted at low concentrations (<15%) from sources in the southern part of Sweden where power demand generally exceeds in-region supply. The potentially recoverable emissions from all the included point sources amount to 45 million tons. If all the recoverable CO2 were used to produce electrofuels, the yield would correspond to 2–3 times the current Swedish demand for transportation fuels. The electricity required would correspond to about 3 times the current Swedish electricity supply. The current relatively few emission sources with high concentrations of CO2 (>90%, biofuel operations) would yield electrofuels corresponding to approximately 2% of the current demand for transportation fuels (corresponding to 1.5–2 TWh/year). In a 2030 scenario with large-scale biofuels operations based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, the potential for electrofuels production from high-concentration sources increases to 8–11 TWh/year. Finally, renewable electricity and production costs, rather than CO2 supply, limit the potential for production of electrofuels in Sweden.

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146
Title: GHG emission balances and prospects of hydrogen enhanced synthetic biofuels from solid biomass in the European context
Author: Kati Koponen, Ilkka Hannula
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: Elsevier Ltd. Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: POWER to X Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The European Commission has proposed a minimum share of 3.6% for advanced biofuels in transport in 2030. Satisfying this target using synthetic biofuels would require 48–62 Mt/a of forest residue feedstock. If all biofuel plants were maximally enhanced with additional hydrogen input, the biomass demand would be reduced by 35 Mt to 16–24 Mt/a. As sustainable biomass is a limited resource, such drastic improvements in the efficiency of biomass use have a favourable impact on biomass availability. In this work we assume electrolysis of water as the source of hydrogen and investigate the GHG emission balances of hydrogen enhanced biofuels using the calculation method provided in the European Union’s sustainability criteria for biofuels. The required 70% emission saving compared to fossil fuels is achieved when the carbon intensity of electricity remains under 84–110 gCO2/kWh, depending on the process configuration.
In addition, we study the possibility that an emission factor could be allocated to the wood biomass, referring to recent discussions on climate impacts of forest bioenergy. Without hydrogen enhancement, the emission factor needs to remain below 13 gCO2/MJwood to meet the 70% requirement, while for hydrogen-enhanced configurations it could increase to 36 gCO2/MJwood, under the assumption of zero emission electricity.

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147
Title: The Chemical Route to a CO2-neutral world
Author: Johan A. Martens Annemie Bogaerts Norbert De Kimpe Pierre A. Jacobs Guy B. Marin Korneel Rabaey Mark Saeys Sebastian Verhelst
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: ChemSusChem Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The CO2 problem is a timing problem. Timing in the carbon cycle suggests large-scale chemical processes in which CO2 is chemically reduced to fuel within seconds, needed to close the carbon cycle and avoid emission of greenhouse gas. This type of cycle, in which CO2 is formed and converted back in the same time-scale, is a sustainable solution for achieving a CO2-neutral world. The energy for rapid CO2 reduction must be generated sustainably and come indirectly from the sun. The development of technology for the required rapid conversion of CO2 to fuel is a considerable scientific challenge.

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148
Title: Sub Group on Advanced Biofuels Building Up the Future – Final Report
Author: Kyriakos Maniatis Ingvar Landälv Lars Waldheim Eric van den Heuvel Stamatis Kalligeros
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

This study seeks to support the European Commission in the elaboration of a methodology for the deployment of advanced biofuels. Currently, the contribution of advanced and other renewable fuels is very limited in the EU with a relative higher cost than fossil fuels they aim to replace. The Sub Group on Advanced Biofuels of the Sustainable Transport Forum consisted of 32 industry experts representing all advanced biofuels value chains as well as the transport sectors of aviation, maritime and heavy duty transport. The work of the Sub Group on Advanced Biofuels put forward a simple and transparent definition for advanced biofuels, proposed reliable targets for deployment of advanced biofuels in the EU market by 2030, updated the technology status of the various value chains and examined thoroughly the production costs of advanced biofuels.
The Sub Group on Advanced Biofuels also considered carefully the proposals on decarbonising transport in the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive and put forward proposals for improvements aiming to create a long term stable framework for encouraging billions of investments.

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149
Title: NER 300 Initiative and Status of the Selected Bioenergy Projects
Author: Lars Waldheim
Publication Year: 2016
OPEN
Source: SGAB Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: GENERAL POLICY AND MARKET Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The reference is a report prepared for the SGAB group on the NER 300 Initiative and Status of the Selected Bioenergy Projects. It summarizes the take away messages from the experience of the industry with NER300 up to March 2016 and analyses the NER300 institutional background. It assesses the outcome of the NER300 Calls for Proposals and gives an overview of the developments after the award decisions. Finally, the author makes a note on the successor program (NER400) and concludes by presenting the overall experience of the NRE300.

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150
Title: SGAB Cost of Biofuels
Author: Ingvar Landalv & Lars Waldheim
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: HVO, LIPID BASED BIOFUELS Forum Area 2:
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The Sub-group on Advanced biofuels (SGAB), to the Sustainable Transport Forum (STF), is chaired by the EC and has some thirty members that represent biofuel, fuel, vehicle and transport industries, while other stakeholders such as national authorities, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and others are welcomed as observers. SGAB, which had its first meeting in December 2015 and the end meeting in October 2016, had a main defined deliverable to give a recommendation on targets for advanced biofuels in 2030. This report has the ambition to present overall economics for production of various advanced biofuels. With a few exceptions, this industry is just starting its path to commercialization and data based on years of operating experiences and construction of a series of plants therefore do not exist for most of the fuels covered by this report. This report does not have the ambition to draw “the final conclusion” of all good work generated in the field of advanced biofuels during the last couple of years. It will however claim to draw well based conclusions on the topic “Cost of Advanced Biofuels”. Chapter 2 describes how information has been gathered and reviewed. Results of this work are compared with other relevant work in the field of advanced biofuels. This is done on a fuel by fuel basis in the chapters thereafter. The overall results are presented in the Summary chapter. Production cost of biofuels are there presented as cost of energy and data are presented as a span. It will give a well-founded base for how much production cost of advanced biofuels differs from cost of today’s main fuels, gasoline and diesel and can therefore be used when investigating what level of incentives would be needed in order to introduce advanced biofuels into the market.

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151
Title: SGAB Technology Status
Author: Ingvar Landalv
Publication Year: 2017
OPEN
Source: European Comission Proposed by:
Forum Area 1: POWER to X Forum Area 2: ALGAE TO BIOFUELS
Forum Area 3: Forum Area 4:

The SCAB decided that it was necessary to establish the actual state of the art of advanced and renewable fuels technologies addressing all value chains as well as their current status of development beyond any doubt. Furthermore, it was aimed to collect directly information from the various organisations developing the technologies in order to avoid ambiguity and establish the status based on their direct input. This report addresses the status and reliability of the advanced biofuels sector by referring to plants in operation, or in some cases close to being in operation. As the title of this report expresses the following information is intended to give STATUS and RELIABILTY information for various conversion pathways of biomass feedstocks to advanced biofuels. These conversion pathways have been grouped under four sections.
1. Thermochemical conversion
2. Biological conversion
3. Power to Gas or Liquid conversion
4. Algae development
This report does not have the intention of being complete. This means that the report gives examples where information has been validated but does not imply that all and every developer is included, and there were technologies in a variety of development stages for which the information was not sufficient and which therefore was omitted.

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Abstracts may have been drafted and/or compiled by the editors of this reference database and may not be necessarily those provided by the authors of the original publication, neither convey the full intended message

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