The majority of the following definitions has been elaborated by the Core Team of the Sub Group of Advanced Biofuels (SGAB) of the Sustainable Transport Forum (STF) and adopted by the ART Fuels Forum. The goal of the definitions is to provide a common ground for understanding and to facilitate the discussions on the relevant topics in the field of advanced biofuels.

The definitions are listed in alphabetical order.

1st Generation Biofuels

1st Generation Biofuels are:

  1. bioethanol produced from crop based sugar or starch via fermentation,
  2. biodiesel produced from esterification and transesterification of vegetable oils, fats & waste streams,

c. biomethane produced from upgrading biogas or landfill gas.

2nd Generation Biofuels

2nd Generation Biofuels are:

  1. alcohols produced from lignocellulosic biomass & waste streams via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or via gasification and fermentation,
  2. synthetic biofuels (Fischer-Tropsch, biomethane, dimethylether, alcohols, etc.) produced from lignocellulosic biomass & waste streams via gasification and catalytic synthesis, and,

c. hydrogenated biofuels produced from vegetable oils or used cooking oils, industrial residues & waste streams originating from food crops or process residues .

3rd Generation Biofuels

3rd generation biofuels are:

  1. biofuels produced from non-lignocellulosic biomass such as aquatic biomass,
  2. biofuels produced through microbial conversion, direct lignocellulosic sugar and/or alcohol conversion to paraffinic biofuels or oxygenates
  3. hydrogenated algal oils or upgraded intermediate oils produced from biomass (such as pyrolysis oils), and,

d. co-processing in petroleum refineries of biomass liquid intermediates (such as pyrolysis oils).

Advanced Biofuels

Advanced Biofuels are those produced from biomass1 other than food/feed crops while meeting the EU sustainability regime2 under the legislation in force3.

1 Biomass as defined under RED or any amendment to it.

2 Sustainability regime as defined under EU Legislation.

3 Existing legislation in force at the time of consideration.

Advanced Renewable Fuels

Advanced Renewable Fuels are advanced biofuels, and, liquid and gaseous fuels produced from renewable intermediates or renewable process by-products (H2, CO, CO2 etc.).

Alternative Fuels

Alternative fuels mean fuels or power sources which serve, at least partly, as a substitute for fossil oil sources in the energy supply to transport and which have the potential to contribute to its decarbonisation and enhance the environmental performance of the transport sector. They include, inter alia: electricity, hydrogen, biofuels as defined in point (i) of Article 2 of Directive 2009/28/EC, synthetic and paraffinic fuels, natural gas, including biomethane, in gaseous form (compressed natural gas (CNG)) and liquefied form (liquefied natural gas (LNG)), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

Alternative Renewable Transport (ART) Fuels

Alternative Renewable Transport fuels are liquid or gaseous transport fuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol which are made from biomass. They serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels in the EU’s transport sector, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the EU’s security of supply. By 2020, the EU aims to have 10% of the transport fuel of every EU country come from renewable sources such as biofuels. Fuel suppliers are also required to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of the EU fuel mix by 6% by 2020 in comparison to 2010. (source:

Aviation Fuel

Aviation Gasoline or Aviation Turbine Fuels.

Aviation Turbine Fuel

Aviation Turbine Fuel means fuel for use in Aviation Turbine Engine. Two types of aviation turbine fuels are provided, as follows:

  1. Jet A and Jet A-1—Relatively high flash point distillates of the kerosene type.
  2. Jet A and Jet A-1 represent two grades of kerosene fuel that differ in freezing point.

Requirements for Jet B fuel now appear in Specification D6615.


Gas, comprising principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen, obtained from gasification of biomass.

Biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester – FAME)

A methyl-ester produced from vegetable or animal oil, of diesel quality, to be used as biofuel.


Ethanol produced from biomass.


Biofuel means liquid or gaseous fuel for transport produced from biomass.


Gas, comprising principally methane and carbon dioxide, obtained from the anaerobic digestion of biomass.


Liquid fuel for energy purposes other than for transport, including electricity and heating and cooling, produced from biomass. Includes viscous liquids such as waste cooking oil, animal fats, palm oil, crude tall oil and tall oil pitch.


Gas comprising principally methane, obtained from either upgrading of biogas or methanation of biosyngas.


e-Fuels are Advanced Renewable Fuels produced from renewable electricity via electrolysis.

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Process

A catalyzed chemical process in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. Typical catalysts used are based on iron and cobalt.

Fischer-Tropsch hydroprocessed Synthetic Paraffinic Diesel (FT-SPD)

SPD synthesized by FT processing. FT-SPD may also be referred to as Paraffinic Middle Distillate (PMD).


Energy carrier intended for energy conversion.

Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) SPKs

Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene produced by hydroprocessing plant, algal oils or animal fats.

Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)

Vegetable oil thermochemically treated with hydrogen.


Indirect Land Use Change is a case in which pasture or agricultural land previously destined for food and feed markets is diverted to biofuel production. In this case, the non-fuel demand will still need to be satisfied either through intensification of current production or by bringing non-agricultural land into production elsewhere. (source: Directive 2015/1513)

Low Carbon Fossil Fuels

Low Carbon Fossil Fuels are liquid and gaseous fuels produced by the conversion of exhaust or waste streams of fossil fuel industrial applications via catalytic, chemical, biological or biochemical processes.

Marine Fuel

“Marine Fuel” means any petroleum-derived liquid fuel intended for use or in use on board a vessel, including those fuels defined in ISO 8217. It includes any petroleum-derived liquid fuel in use on board inland waterway vessels or recreational craft, as defined respectively in Article 2 of Directive 97/68/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (2) and Article 1(3) of Directive 94/25/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (3), when such vessels are at sea.

Paraffinic Diesel Fuel from Synthesis or Hydrotreatment

Paraffinic diesel fuel originates from synthesis or hydrotreatment processes.

Renewable liquid and gaseous transport fuels of non-biological origin

Liquid or gaseous fuels other than biofuels whose energy content comes from renewable energy sources other than biomass, and which are used in transport.

Synthesized Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons derived from alternative sources such as coal, natural gas, biomass, and hydrogenated fats and oils by processes such as gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, and hydroprocessing.

Synthesized Iso-Paraffıns (SIP)

Synthetic blending component that is comprised essentially of iso-paraffins.

Synthesized Paraffinic Diesel (SPD)

Middle distillate blending component consisting of n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, and cycloparaffins Hydrocarbons shall be derived from alternative sources such as coal, natural gas, biomass, and hydrogenated fats and oils by processes such as FT synthesis and hydroprocessing.

Synthesized Paraffınic Kerosene (SPK)

Synthetic blending component that is comprised essentially of isoparaffins, normal paraffins, and cycloparaffins.

Synthesized Paraffınic Kerosene plus Aromatics (SPK/A)

Synthetic blending component that is comprised of synthesized paraffinic kerosene (SPK) to which synthesized aromatics have been added.